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#### Queries: Alien GMO Creations - Monsanto - Agriculture - Toxic Demonic Corruptions of Nature and Natural Laws of Creation

 Posted on June 1, 2016 at 11:15 AM comments (0)

About 76,179 results

Ten Ways Monsanto and Big Ag Are Trying to Kill You - And the Planet

https://www.organicconsumers.org/essays/ten-ways-mons...Proxy Highlight

Feb 1, 2012 ... Energy-intensive industrial farming practices that rely on toxic chemicals and genetically engineered crops are not just undermining public ...

Ten Ways Monsanto and Big Ag Are Trying to Kill You—And the Planet

www.ecowatch.com/2012/02/02/ten-ways-monsanto-and-big...Proxy Highlight

Feb 2, 2012 ... Ten Ways Monsanto and Big Ag Are Trying to Kill You—And the Planet ... agriculture to a relocalized and organic system of food and farming.

Monsanto: A U.S. Based Food Company Killing Us Off? - DrAxe.com

www.draxe.com/monsanto-a-u-s-based-food-company-killi...Proxy Highlight

You may never have heard of the company Monsanto, but undoubtedly you've come into contact with their products. ... One of the main ways that Monsanto is trying, as their motto says, ... 10 Turmeric Benefits: Superior to Medications? (195 ) .... But ironically all of the Bio-Ag companies have a sister partner in big pharma.

10 Ways Monsanto is Trying to Kill You & the Planet! – The ...

https://rhhr.org/2012/05/30/10-ways-monsanto-is-tryin...Proxy Highlight

May 30, 2012 ... 10 Ways Monsanto is Trying to Kill You & the Planet! ... half of greenhouse gas emissions, making Big Ag one of Big Oil's biggest customers.

10 Ways Monsanto & Big Ag Kill Us & the Planet | PlanetSave

www.planetsave.com/2012/02/17/10-ways-monsanto-big-ag...Proxy Highlight

Feb 17, 2012 ... 10 Ways Monsanto & Big Ag Kill Us & the Planet ... I wouldn't presume they are “ trying” to, just that they are more concerned with their profits ...

4 Ways Monsanto is Killing YOU, Me and Our Future - Fitlife.tv

www.fitlife.tv/4-ways-monsanto-is-killing-you-me-and-...Proxy Highlight

Feb 25, 2015 ... Monsanto is a publically traded company, founded in 1901, that is the leading producer of herbicides, pesticides and crop seeds. ... 4 Ways Monsanto is Killing YOU, Me and Our Future .... To sum things up on a personal note, I remember being outraged in a .... Who Wants Dinner At Drew's Secret Table?

Why Does Everyone Hate Monsanto? - Modern Farmer

www.modernfarmer.com/2014/03/monsantos-good-bad-pr-pr...Proxy Highlight

Mar 4, 2014 ... For 10 years, until it was torn down, the chemical giant's creation ... I thought you were trying to make the world a BETTER place? ... of industrial agriculture, it courted controversy in other ways — namely, as a .... Schmeiser was made into the poster child for the innocent farmer sued by big, bad Monsanto.

Monsanto's BT-Toxins Found to Kill Human Embryo Cells ...

www.nationofchange.org/monsanto-s-bt-toxins-found-kil...Proxy Highlight

Jan 25, 2014 ... In the meantime, utilize these 5 tips for avoiding GMOs while you .... Ten Ways Monsanto and Big Ag Are Trying to Kill You - And the Planet

The Complete History of Monsanto, “The World's Most Evil ...

www.globalresearch.ca/the-complete-history-of-monsant...Proxy Highlight

May 24, 2016 ... A few things you definitely want to avoid in your diet are GMO soy, corn, wheat and ... The answer to that question is obviously a very big “no way!” ... from its chemical business and rebrands itself as an agricultural company. ... killed millions of people and wildlife over the years now wants us to believe they ...

Monsanto - SourceWatch

www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/MonsantoProxy Highlight

Monsanto is one of the "Big 6" Biotech Corporations, along with BASF, Bayer, Dow Chemical ... of the Big 6 and is considered the mother of agricultural biotechnology. ... to Succeed Without Really Trying'; 4.8 Monsanto, GM Foods, and Health Risks .... Among other things, the suit argues "that genetically modified food labels ...

10 Reasons why Monsanto is polluted and corrupted from its core

www.seattleorganicrestaurants.com/vegan-whole-food/Mo...Proxy Highlight

Are the “so-called” Energy Drinks Killing You Slowly? ..... Monsanto's GMO seeds are causing a disaster in US agriculture ... Monsanto and biotech financial beneficiary have been trying to spread misinformation that suicide of ... But as we all know, global sustainability for Monsanto, big banks and giant oil companies mean ...

Core Truths: 10 Common GMO Claims Debunked | Popular Science

www.popsci.com/article/science/core-truths-10-common-...Proxy Highlight

Jul 11, 2014 ... To find out, Popular Science chose 10 of the most common claims about GMOs and ... "That is not true when you cross widely different varieties in traditional breeding." ... 6) Claim: All research on GMOs has been funded by Big Ag. ... that feeding the larvae milkweed coated in Bt corn pollen could kill them.

Why Bayer really wants to buy Monsanto - The Week

www.theweek.com/articles/626013/why-bayer-really-want...Proxy Highlight

May 24, 2016 ... Monsanto's Roundup herbicide. ... 10 things you need to know today. Today's ... On the flip side, however, are herbicides for killing weeds. ... As an agricultural chemical company, Bayer is big in both pesticides and herbicides.

Monsanto's Cruel, and Dangerous, Monopolization on American ...

www.vanityfair.com/news/2008/05/monsanto200805Proxy Highlight

Monsanto dominates America's food chain with ruthless tactics, waging a ... remember the exact words, but they were to the effect of: “Monsanto is big. ... We will get you. .... a farmer plants his crop, then treats it later with Roundup to kill weeds. .... the safety of saccharin, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture even tried to ...

Lita Lee's To Your Health Blog

blog.litalee.comProxy Highlight

Feb 2, 2012 ... Ten Ways Monsanto and Big Ag Are Trying to Kill You - And the Planet ... Monsanto GMOs. posted by LITA LEE, PHD at 2:10 PM 0 Comments ...

Monsanto Is Going Organic in a Quest for the Perfect Veggie | WIRED

www.wired.com/2014/01/new-monsanto-vegetables/Proxy Highlight

Jan 21, 2014 ... Fraley concludes that the pepper “changes the game if you think ... The company whose name is synonymous with Big Ag has .... Another genetically modded corn variety seemed to kill monarch butterflies. ..... I honestly would have no problem with anything Monsanto did, if only two things would happen: 1.

The World According to Monsanto - Top Documentary Films

www.topdocumentaryfilms.com/the-world-according-to-mo...Proxy Highlight

Dec 31, 2007 ... We can collapse in despair (what Monsanto wants us to do) or WE CAN .... And you're an expert on the long term effects of agricultural .... I think when it comes to the very things that give us life, 'prudent, .... I guess Monsanto's newest horror, the "terminator gene" -- which literally kills the plant's own seed, ...

The Folly of Big Agriculture: Why Nature Always Wins by Verlyn ...

e360.yale.edu/feature/the_folly_of_big_agriculture_wh...Proxy Highlight

Apr 9, 2012 ... In its short, shameless history, big agriculture has had only one big idea: uniformity. ... farmers have been encouraged to apply a uniform herbicide to kill weeds. ... If things go right, bureaucratically, that is just so much cash in Dow's pocket. .... Yet, the biotech companies (like Monsanto) are trying to impose ...

Why Tiny Microbes Mean Big Things for Farming

news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140918-soil-...Proxy Highlight

Sep 18, 2014 ... Why Tiny Microbes Mean Big Things for Farming ... Now, both university researchers and major agricultural companies are looking for new ways to use soil bacteria. ... of carbon monoxide—prime habitat for the species they are trying to ... a fungus, such as wheat take-all, from infecting and killing crops.

GMO Foods Are Killing Us - Elite Daily

www.elitedaily.com/life/gmos-are-killing-us/Proxy Highlight

May 28, 2013 ... If you are active on social media these days then you see that living a fit, ... Basically, your food is being pumped full of weird things it is not made to digest. ... GMOs are awful for so many reasons, but the biggest being that they are ... Monsanto is the King of GMOs and is pretty much responsible for all the ...

U.S. Farmers Cope With Roundup-Resistant Weeds - NYTimes.com

www.nytimes.com/2010/05/04/business/energy-environmen...Proxy Highlight

May 3, 2010 ... The first resistant species to pose a serious threat to agriculture was spotted in a ... Since then, the problem has spread, with 10 resistant species in at least 22 ... However, if Roundup doesn't kill the weeds, farmers have little incentive ... Roundup — originally made by Monsanto but now also sold by others ...

10 Problems Genetically Modified Foods Are Already Causing ...

www.listverse.com/2013/06/22/10-problems-genetically-...Proxy Highlight

Jun 22, 2013 ... 9Kill Bees and Butterflies ... Preventing farmers from harvesting seeds means big businesses could ... Things get even scarier when you consider Monsanto has .... by systematically buying up seed firms and replacing tried and true ... to the agriculture forefront is the promise of preventing a world food crisis ...

Monsanto vs. the monarchs: More evidence that Big Ag is killing our ...

www.salon.com/2014/06/06/monsanto_vs_the_monarchs_con...Proxy Highlight

Jun 6, 2014 ... Monsanto vs. the monarchs: More evidence that Big Ag is killing our butterflies ... Chip Taylor of Monarch Watch, you already know that modern agriculture is ... And while a number of other things could be hurting the butterfly ...

Be Nice to Monsanto, They're Having a Very Bad Year - Red, Green ...

www.redgreenandblue.org/2010/10/17/be-nice-to-monsant...Proxy Highlight

Oct 17, 2010 ... All the weeds are killed with hardly any work for the farmers. ... Monsanto wants to rush out a Roundup Ready sugar beet, but the courts have ... do you have any interest in knowing which of the things you have written here are ..... Pingback: From Big Ag to Big Organics: Welcome to Monsanto's Brave New ...

Honey Bee Die-Off Caused By Multiple Factors Including Pesticides ...

www.billmoyers.com/2013/05/02/honey-bee-die-off-caused/Proxy Highlight

May 2, 2013 ... Find out more about the BEE Protective campaign and how you can ... Everybody but Bayer, Monsanto, and Dow could tell you these ... which attracts many bees among other things, and I have seen many more ... They kill anything they regulate! ... It's a crime what big agriculture has done to mother nature.

The evil of Monsanto and GMOs explained: Bad technology, endless ...

www.naturalnews.com/037289_monsanto_corporations_ethi...Proxy Highlight

Sep 23, 2012 ... It is these things, I think you'll agree, that make Monsanto a ... of farmers who are trying to avoid growing GMOs, Monsanto uses its patent ... Think about the evils perpetrated by the agricultural giants, ... drive of nearly every large corporation you've ever heard of: Get big, ... Even if it means killing our future.

Monsanto's Dirty Dozen | GMO Awareness

https://gmo-awareness.com/2011/05/12/monsanto-dirty-d...Proxy Highlight

May 12, 2011 ... #1 - Saccharin Did you know Monsanto got started because of an ... the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture with the manufacture of the ... Petroleum-based fertilizers can kill beneficial soil micro-organisms, ..... He's really trying. .... of age if you keep using all the SAFE things OKAY'D by the Government.

Monsanto Trolling Anti-GMO Articles, Claiming Organic Food 'Kills ...

www.activistpost.com/2014/06/monsanto-trolling-anti-g...Proxy Highlight

Jun 13, 2014 ... You can say well it really is killing people – but where is the evidence? ... After all, Monsanto has fought labeling GM food in every state that's tried to label it. Why is .... Free Report: 10 Ways to Survive the Economic Collapse with subscription ... Big Ag, Big Pharma, conspiracy, scientists on the take....reject ...

Hybrid Seeds vs. GMOs | Food Renegade

www.foodrenegade.com/hybrid-seeds-vs-gmos/Proxy Highlight

That means that if you save the seeds produced by F1 hybrid plants and plant them, ... to purchase their seeds, and the agricultural chemicals required to grow them. ... On the one hand, biotech firms like Monsanto argue that the GMO seeds they create .... I believe organic and heirloom seeds are two totally different things .

Food Politics by Marion Nestle » Isn't it about time GM foods got ...

www.foodpolitics.com/2012/01/isnt-it-about-time-gm-fo...Proxy Highlight

Jan 30, 2012 ... Monsanto is no longer selling GM corn in France and BASF has ..... Ten Ways Monsanto and Big Ag Are Trying to Kill You - And the Planet:

5 Steps for Avoiding and Detoxing the Bt-Toxin Found in GMO Crops ...

www.naturalsociety.com/5-steps-avoiding-detoxing-bt-t...Proxy Highlight

Jan 7, 2013 ... Well, Big Ag had the evil-genius idea of actually splicing the Bt gene ... Monsanto's 'biopesticide' known as Bt is killing human kidney cells. ... Consume fiber-rich foods – The more fiber you eat, the faster things move through your body. .... force to defend yourself against someone who is trying to kill you.

Are GMOs safe? Yes. The case against them is full of fraud, lies, and ...

www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/201...Proxy Highlight

Jul 15, 2015 ... The people who tell you that Monsanto is hiding the truth are themselves ... It's a process that can be used in different ways to create different things. ... in the developing world, it isn't a big moneymaker like soybeans or cotton. .... pesticide use and corporate control of agriculture, didn't apply to all GE crops.

The True Evil Empire is Monsanto and They are Trying to Kill the ...

https://mindyourdirt.com/2015/11/08/the-true-evil-emp...Proxy Highlight

Nov 8, 2015 ... I am so sorry to do this to you, but I am about to go off the rails from my normal posts. ... The True Evil Empire is Monsanto and They are Trying to Kill the World. .... The Big One, what is not debatable is the destruction that was caused. .... sneakily nestled between 10 Ways to Add Nutrients to your Soil and ...

Hidden Costs of Industrial Agriculture | Union of Concerned Scientists

www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/our-failing-food-...Proxy Highlight

Sustainable agriculture practices can protect the environment and produce high- quality, safe, ... You are here ... food and farm policy choices – impacts the environment in many ways. ... blooms of oxygen-depleting microorganisms that disrupt ecosystems and kill fish. ... Eight Ways Monsanto Fails at Sustainable Agriculture ...

The Biggest Concerns About Genetically Modified Food Aren't ...

www.lifehacker.com.au/2015/05/the-biggest-concerns-ab...Proxy Highlight

May 8, 2015 ... The Biggest Concerns About GMO Food Aren't Really About GMOs ... and any other chemicals that farmers use to kill things that might hurt their plants. ... Two different things, actually, which GMO opponents sometimes get confused. .... capitalising on agriculture and trying to patent seeds that die after one ...

Top 10 Reasons to Avoid GMOs - Naturally Savvy

www.naturallysavvy.com/eat/whats-so-bad-about-gmos-to...Proxy Highlight

Read More: 15 Things You Should Know About Monsanto. 2. ... The main function of herbicides and pesticides is to kill unwanted plants and insects. ..... When you look into the studies trying to prove GMO bad, many times they are showing the .... Are you sure you have no connect to Monsanto or at least the big ag industry?

The Fight Over the Future of Food: Monsanto, GMOs, and How to ...

www.treehugger.com/green-food/the-fight-over-the-futu...Proxy Highlight

Nov 11, 2009 ... So, will (or should) genetically modified foods be a big part of the future of food? ..... You could argue that these things come from industrial agriculture, not ... Monsanto trying to feed the world and make a killing doing it you ...

How Monsanto Is Terrifying the Farming World | Miami New Times

www.miaminewtimes.com/restaurants/how-monsanto-is-ter...Proxy Highlight

Jul 25, 2013 ... Agriculture is a big industry in Florida. ... When you're good at something, you want to leverage that. ... That meant farmers no longer had to till the land to kill weeds, ... Monsanto squeezed out competitors by buying the biggest seed .... Monsanto's spent more than $10 million on campaign contributions ... click here to view. - Toxics Information Project www.toxicsinfo.org/tiptalks/Spring13.docProxy Highlight TELL THEM YOU SAW IT IN THE TIP TALKS DIGEST! ..... Ten Ways Monsanto And Big Ag Are Trying To Kill You - And The Planet Www.Organicconsumers. Can We Trust Monsanto with Our Food? - Scientific American www.scientificamerican.com/article/can-we-trust-monsa...Proxy Highlight Jul 25, 2013 ... Scratch the blogosphere and you'll be dumbfounded by this award. GMOs ( genetically modified organisms) produced by big ag-biotech companies are responsible for farmer suicides in India. ... and "They are killing us—GMO foods. ... Scientists have done their best to explain things, but they're rather staid ... Stop Monsanto's Secret Plan to Kill GMO Labeling | Food ... www.fooddemocracynow.org/blog/2014/dec/10Proxy Highlight Dec 10, 2014 ... Don't let Monsanto and the GMA corrupt our democracy and kill GMO ... At Food Democracy Now!, we've been warning you about this for ... with devious ways to undermine our most basic democratic rights. ... on December 10, and Congress needs to hear your voice loud and clear! ... DTN Ag Policy Blog. Healing News Network Archives - February, 2012 postings, links ... www.healingnews.com/2012/Archives_February_2012.htmlProxy Highlight Feb 29, 2012 ... Judge Sides With Monsanto: Ridicules Farmers' Right to Grow Food ..... Ten Ways Monsanto and Big Ag Are Trying to Kill You - And the Planet ... GMO Myth: Farmers “drown” crops in “dangerous” glyphosate. Fact ... https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2015/01/22/gmo...Proxy Highlight Jan 22, 2015 ... On our no-till ground—the most sustainable form of agriculture, and it's been made ... which is one of my big concerns and a concern farmers that I know. .... around any subsatance humans manipulate to kill bugs or plants is not organic. ... You can't simply divide things into good and bad based on whether ... The 10 GMO Myths That Monsanto Wants You to Believe - The ... www.theorganicprepper.ca/the10-gmo-myths-that-monsant...Proxy Highlight Jul 20, 2013 ... The 10 GMO Myths That Monsanto Wants You to Believe ... Because the biotech companies, Big Food, and Big Agri can pay to spread their ... The reality: Sustainable agricultural practices are the answer to world hunger. .... are – and many of them are derived from things like GMO corn, soy, and canola. The GMO debate: 5 things to stop arguing - The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/food/the-gmo...Proxy Highlight Oct 27, 2014 ... You might not think much of my idea of celebration, but I'm guessing you'd ... it just doesn't make a dent in the association that GMOs have with Big Ag. ... GMO supporters are Monsanto shills, and opponents are anti-science. ... says that “ conflict entrepreneurs who are trying to turn GM food risks into a ... The Multiple Ways Monsanto is Putting Normal Seeds Out of Reach ... https://survivingthemiddleclasscrash.wordpress.com/20...Proxy Highlight Feb 5, 2009 ... And they have done and are doing a bucket load of things to keep farmers .... I have nothing for you to sue me over but you are welcome to spend millions trying . ..... Their pesticides are killing the bees…humans will follow in four years. ...... we will have nothing but Big Ag and a biased government telling us ... Did Monsanto Really Just Get A Patent For GMO Marijuana? www.mintpressnews.com/did-monsanto-really-just-get-a-...Proxy Highlight Apr 17, 2015 ... “Monsanto Creates First Genetically Modified Strain of Marijuana! ... that cannabis is becoming big business — and that awareness is based in fact. ... Monsanto is investing heavily in new agricultural technologies, .... What's weird is you spend more time name calling and saying disparaging things to ... How Big Business is Killing Small Farmers - xoJane www.xojane.com/issues/monsanto-industrial-agriculture...Proxy Highlight Apr 26, 2012 ... Monsanto is feeding something, all right: its coffers. ... Monsanto in a nutshell: One of the world's biggest industrial agriculture corporations, with a focus on biotechnology, ... You might know the company for the herbicide glyphosphate ( found in ... These are things organic farmers worry about, and with good ... Monsanto's Herbicide Might Be Killing Farmers | VICE News https://news.vice.com/article/monsanto-s-herbicide-mi...Proxy Highlight Mar 5, 2014 ... Agricultural workers afflicted with CKDu have generally been exposed to all of the above. .... always say that you wouldn't work there if any of these things were true. ... how can you be confident that it isn't all one big profit-based bias? ... The US Just Tried to Kill the Leader of the Taliban With an Airstrike. https://startpage.com/do/asearch #### Queries: Spiritual Healing - Entheogens - Botanical Gardens - Organic Holistic Health - Luminous - Ambrosia - Shamanism - Herbalism - Detox - Mother Nature Mother Ayahuasca  Posted on May 20, 2016 at 1:45 PM comments (1) Passiflora incarnata AKA Passion Flower Passion Flower Seed Packs now available. 10 seeds per pack for$5.

Passiflora incarnata is a beautifull Perrenial with sweet scented flowers. Passionflower has been used as a sedative to aid in the treatment of insomnia. In homeopathic medicine Passion Flower was used to treat epilepsy. Passionflower can be smoked or made as a tasty tea or strong decoction.

The European literature involving passionflower recommends it primarily for anti-anxiety treatment.

The medicinal properties of Passion Flowers have been known to Native Americans for centuries. The Cherokee used Passiflora incarnata in religious ceremonies. The dried herb has been valued as an antispasmodic, hypnotic, and sedative. The flowers are highly sought after and considered to be the most potent part of the plant. We are proud to offer the highest quality passion flower blooms and foliage at a reasonable price.

Helps calm people down

Can relieve headaches due to nervous tension

Good for muscle spasms due to nerves

Also known as

Passiflora incarnata, Passiflora caerulea, Apricot Vine, Blue and Purple Passionflower, and Maypop.

Constituents

Chrysin, harmane, harmaline.

Passion Flower Tea Recipe

Put 1 teaspoon in a cloth tea bag or tea baller and then add them to 8 ounces of recently-boiling water. Let steep for five minutes. Take this tea about an hour before going to bed to help with sleep and don't drink more than one cup per day.

Sutherlandia frutescens (Cancer bush, Balloon pea, Sutherlandia)

Sutherlandia frutescens is regarded as the most profound and multi-purpose of the medicinal plants in Southern Africa. Because of its efficacy as a safe tonic for diverse health conditions it has enjoyed a long history of use by all cultures in Southern Africa.

Sutherlandia frutescens, is a much-respected and long-used medicinal plant that is also an attractive garden plant, and has been cultivated in gardens for many years, for its fine form, striking colour and luminous flowers.

Common names: sutherlandia, cancer bush, balloon pea (Eng.); umnwele(Xhosa & Zulu); kankerbos, blaasbossie, blaas-ertjie, eendjies, gansiekeurtjie, klappers, hoenderbelletjie (Afr.)

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Sencha Extra Green (with Matcha) Japanese Green Tea

Witch Hazel Bark Hamamelis virginiana

Read more:

www.bouncingbearbotanicals.com/balloon-p-742.html?ref=5362

#### Queries: Return of The Divine - The Human Gods - E Vine - Eve - Living - Anthropos - Hue Man - Color Man - Rainbow Spirit Man - Shaman - Indigo Warriors - Rainbow Kundalini Serpentine Reiki Chi Human Solar Key of Destiny - Holistic Holy Eon Health

 Posted on May 15, 2016 at 7:10 AM comments (0)

Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3265077/Proxy Highlight

Jan 12, 2012 ... Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing ... This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of ...

earthing (aka grounding) - The Skeptic's Dictionary

www.skepdic.com/earthing.htmlProxy Highlight

Oct 19, 2014 ... Advocates claim that earthing has many health benefits because going barefoot allows the feet to pick up free electrons that then allegedly ...

Is There Anything To "Earthing"? - Ask Dr. Weil

www.drweil.com/drw/u/QAA401221/Is-There-Anything-to-E...Proxy Highlight

Jan 8, 2013 ... I recently read about the practice of "earthing" - the idea that walking ... Supposedly, electrons drawn into the body from the earth neutralize ...

How to Use Earthing & Grounding to Boost Health - Wellness Mama

www.wellnessmama.com/5600/earthing-sleep/Proxy Highlight

Basically, the theory is that our bodies are meant to come into contact with the Earth (a “grounding” force) on a regular basis. Positive electrons in the form of free ...

electrons and the earth's surface - Earthingpeople

www.earthingpeople.se/en/styled-5/Proxy Highlight

When you ground yourself either outdoors or through any of the Earthing products, the free electrons are absorbed into the body and the body also restores it's ...

Health Benefits Of Earthing Grounded In Science? - Critical Cactus

www.criticalcactus.com/health-benefits-of-earthing-gr...Proxy Highlight

does earthing truly boost your health, improve sleep and reduce stress? ... By connecting to the earth, you allow negatively-charged electrons to flow into your ...

How Does Grounding or Earthing Impact Your Health? - Mercola

articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/11/0...Proxy Highlight

Nov 4, 2012 ... Earthing or grounding helps improve heart rate variability, cortisol ... Research indicates that electrons from the Earth have antioxidant effects ...

Research - Earthing_Institute - Earthing Institute

www.earthinginstitute.net/?page_id=131Proxy Highlight

We know that Earthing allows a transfer of electrons (the Earth's natural, subtle energy) into the body. We know that inflammation is caused by free radicals and ...

Grounding - the Removal of a Charge - The Physics Classroom

www.physicsclassroom.com/class/estatics/Lesson-2/Grou...Proxy Highlight

Grounding is the process of removing the excess charge on an object by means of the transfer of electrons between it and another object of substantial size.

Earthing For Longevity – Healing From Earth's Electrons ...

www.undergroundhealthreporter.com/earthing-anti-aging/Proxy Highlight

Earthing (also called grounding) means reconnecting your body with the free electrons that flow through the Earth's surface. It can be as simple, easy, and free ...

Sun Gazing: Why I Stare At The Sun : In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical ...

www.in5d.com/sun-gazing-why-i-stare-at-the-sun/Proxy Highlight

Jan 6, 2015 ... Sun gazing. Sounds crazy doesn't it? Doctor's warn you about how dangerous the sun is, and how harmful it can be to your health.

Solar Healing Center

www.solarhealing.comProxy Highlight

Sun Gazing Process. We have a super computer in our bodies given to us by the nature, which is our brain. HRM (Hira Ratan Manek) calls it the “brainutor”.

Sun Gazing for Health: An Ancient Therapy - Earth Clinic

www.earthclinic.com/remedies/sun_gazing.htmlProxy Highlight

Mar 29, 2016 ... Sun Gazing is an ancient South East Asian Practice that may sound like an unusual health treatment; however, it is actually considered to be ...

Can ancient 'sun gazing' therapy help reactivate a calcified pineal ...

www.naturalnews.com/049805_sun_gazing_pineal_gland_en...Proxy Highlight

May 22, 2015 ... The technique is known as "sun gazing," or "sun eating," and it dates back more than 2,000 years to ancient India. By staring at the sun for short ...

The Health Benefits of Sungazing - Global Healing Center

www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/health-ben...Proxy Highlight

Apr 19, 2012 ... Sungazing is the practice of staring at a sunrise or sunset for extended periods of time, but are there any health benefits to Sungazing?

NASA Confirms -Super Human Abilities Gained Through Sungazing ...

https://charbelmaklouf.wordpress.com/2013/06/08/nasa-...Proxy Highlight

Jun 8, 2013 ... Do not engage in sungazing practices without proper training and medical supervision. Permanent eye injury and blindness may occur. Do not ...

The Art of Sun-Gazing: NASA confirms that we can “Eat The Sun ...

www.beforeitsnews.com/alternative/2015/09/the-art-of-...Proxy Highlight

Sep 16, 2015 ... To start, let us focus our attention on a fairly ancient practice known as Sun- gazing, which has been practiced all over the world in various ...

NASA Confirms: Super Human Abilities Gained Through Sungazing ...

www.beforeitsnews.com/alternative/2016/03/nasa-confir...Proxy Highlight

Mar 28, 2016 ... That's right, I'm talking about the super-human abilities that can be gained by those who follow the protocol for what's known as sun-gazing, ...

Can The Sun Give Us The Super Human Power of Not Needing To ...

www.projectyourself.com/blog/can-the-sun-give-us-the-...Proxy Highlight

Jan 6, 2014 ... Well a NASA study has confirmed that it can indeed happen through sun ... It's been said that during your first 3 months of sun gazing, the suns ...

Nasa Confirms Sun Gazing and Healthy Benefits

Biophoton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BiophotonProxy Highlight

Biophotons are photons of light in the ultraviolet and low visible light range that are produced by a biological system. They are non-thermal in origin, and the ...

Biophotons: The Human Body Emits, Communicates with, and is ...

www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/biophotons-human-body-emits...Proxy Highlight

Jun 25, 2013 ... Indeed, the human body emits biophotons, also known as ultraweak photon emissions (UPE), with a visibility 1,000 times lower than the ...

Biophotons - The Light in Our Cells

www.transpersonal.de/mbischof/englisch/webbookeng.htmProxy Highlight

Biophotons, or ultraweak photon emissions of biological systems, are weak electromagnetic waves in the optical range of the spectrum - in other words: light.

An introduction to human biophoton emission. - NCBI

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15947465Proxy Highlight

BACKGROUND: Biophoton emission is the spontaneous emission of ultraweak light emanating from all living systems, including man. The emission is linked to ...

Biophoton Communication: Can Cells Talk Using Light?

https://www.technologyreview.com/s/427982/biophoton-c...Proxy Highlight

May 22, 2012 ... One of the more curious backwaters of biology is the study of biophotons: optical or ultraviolet photons emitted by living cells in a way that is ...

What is biophoton science? | Health Angel Foundation

www.biontology.com/research/what-is-biophoton-science/Proxy Highlight

Biophotons. It has been scientifically proven that every cell in the body emits more than 100,000 light impulses or photons per second. These light emissions ...

Biophotons - The Lights in Our Cells

www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_fuerzasuni...Proxy Highlight

Because of its low intensity, this cellular glow, also known as biophoton emission, is often referred to as ultra-weak cell radiation, or ultra-weak bioluminescence.

Biophotons And The Universal Light Code - Rense

www.rense.com/general50/buiop.htmProxy Highlight

One of the key notions in this book is the discovery of biophotons, a new study in the field of biophysics that could have a far-reaching impact on our ideas of life ...

How Biophotons Show That We Are Made Of Light. | Spirit Science

www.thespiritscience.net/2014/04/18/biophotons-demons...Proxy Highlight

Apr 18, 2014 ... A biophoton or Ultra-weak Photon Emission, (UPE) is a kind of light particle that is emitted by all living things. Though it exists in the visible and ...

https://startpage.com/do/asearch

#### Dr. Rima Truth Reports: CBD ALREADY IN HUMAN DNA!

 Posted on May 2, 2016 at 1:05 AM comments (0)

CBD ALREADY IN HUMAN DNA!

Dr. Rima Truth Reports

HEALTH MAY DAY!

Health Information You Must Have!

CBD ALREADY IN HUMAN DNA

VIRAL VIDEO YOU MUST WATCH, SHARE!

CBD IS YOUR BIRTHRIGHT.

YOUR DNA SAYS SO!

Natural Solutions Foundation: http://drrimatruthreports.com

NOT having autism is your birthright (and your children's, too).

Tell William W. Thompson, PhD, to stand in his honor, not support deceit. He may be about to cave.

#### Herbalism 101 (Entheogens): Tools For Shamans, Healers, Herbalists, Spiritual Guides and Aromatherapists

 Posted on May 2, 2016 at 12:55 AM comments (21)

Leaf & Love Organic Lemonade has become the first product in the U.S. to be certified as Glyphosate Residue Free, the Detox Project announced on Tuesday.

The Co-Founder of Leaf & Love Organics, Amy DiBianca, spoke to Sustainable Pulse to tell us why her company made the move to inform their customers that Leaf & Love Organic Lemonade does not contain glyphosate residues: What inspired you to start producing Leaf & Love organic lemonades?

Two fellow moms and I wanted to develop the only zero-sugar “juice box” among the current array of high-sugar, empty calorie children’s beverages. With tremendous concerns about children’s sugar consumption on the rise, we felt good about giving parents a healthier option for their children’s lunchboxes and birthday parties. Why have you certified your product Glyphosate Residue Free? Having the peace of mind that our product is free of a potentially dangerous pesticide residue is just as important as knowing the ingredients are organic and natural. We are talking about every day foods and drinks that our kids consume, and as a mom, I want the highest degree of confidence that what I give my family is safe. As a company, we feel that our customers deserve to have that confidence and trust in our product.

THE GLYPHOSATE BOX Glyphosate Residue Free Certification Glyphosate in Popular American Foods 1o Things You Need to Know about Glyphosate Glyphosate in Numbers What are the top issues your customers care about, which make them buy Leaf & Love organic lemonades? We are the first zero –sugar juice box for kids. That is a game-changer in the children’s drink market. Our customers are aware that childhood obesity and other sugar-related health conditions are on the rise—it’s all over the news that sugar is a HUGE problem. However, our customers don’t want artificial sweeteners that have also been scientifically linked to medical problems. So knowing there is a delicious, organic product that is non-GMO verified, and naturally sweetened without sugar or artificial ingredients, parents feel really good about it. And now, being verified as Glyphosate free, parents can feel as good as we do when we give it to our own kids. ..... Sustainable Pulse

About the product

Contains 32 - 6.75oz Boxes Zero grams of sugar, sweetened only with organic stevia USDA certified organic, non-gmo, vegan, low glycemic index and gluten-free No Artificial Ingredients. No Calories Perfectly portable for a child’s lunchbox, mom’s handbag, birthday parties, playdates, post-sports refreshment Report incorrect product information Product Description As moms, we created something real and simple for our kids and yours-a juice box made with organic, premium ingredients and no sugar. At Leaf & Love, our drinks are great for kids and the people who love them. Nothing complicated. Just delicious. Zero grams of sugar…A zillion grams of love.

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#### Marijuana use could prevent weight gain, study shows Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/052407_medical_marijuana_weight_management_health_benefits.html#ixzz3vWI32zmO

 Posted on December 27, 2015 at 6:25 AM comments (0)

(NaturalNews) While it's not unusual for marijuana users to engage in food binges during or after smoking, a new study has surfaced showing that such behaviors don't negatively impact their waistlines. One might think that marijuana users would be obese due to all the food consumption they're said to indulge in, however, researchers from the Conference of Quebec University Health Centers have reason to suggest that it's not necessarily true.(1)

The experts studied over 700 adults aged between 18 and 74, based on a Nunavik Inuit Health Survey, and found that, compared to people who didn't smoke marijuana, the marijuana smokers had lower body mass index (BMI) scores (26.8 versus 28.6, respectively). It was noted that those with the lowest BMI scores were marijuana users who hadn't previously tried or quit tobacco, which may or may not play a role in the outcomes. Furthermore, they also discovered that those who smoked pot had a reduced risk of developing diabetes, exhibiting lower fasting insulin and insulin resistance.(2)

The study, titled "Cannabis use in relation to obesity and insulin resistance in the inuit population," was published in the journal Obesity. With a goal "To ascertain the relationship between cannabis use, obesity, and insulin resistance," the study abstract concludes that "Cannabis use was associated with lower BMI, and such an association did not occur through the glucose metabolic process or related inflammatory markers."(3)

Not the first time marijuana use shown to have multiple benefits

According to the researchers, "These associations were attenuated among those who reported using marijuana at least once but not in the past 30 days, suggesting that the impact of marijuana use on insulin and insulin resistance exists during periods of recent use."(1)

This isn't the first time that marijuana use has been linked with positive health results; in 2013, a study published in the American Journal of Medicine outlined that people who smoked marijuana had lower insulin levels than those who didn't, but only if they did so during the past month. As for weight, study participants were found to have smaller waist measurements than those who did not smoke marijuana.(1)

In addition to the weight control and diabetes prevention and management that these studies suggest, marijuana use has been associated with a range of other positive health outcomes. For example, THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, the main ingredient in marijuana, has long-been linked to reducing pain and improving conditions for patients experiencing certain ailments. From helping with glaucoma and providing asthma relief, to controlling muscle spasms brought on by multiple sclerosis, and possibly improving the health of AIDS patients, medical marijuana has been found to have a multitude of health benefits.(3)

Despite ability to improve health, marijuana use debate rages on

Unfortunately for many, the topic of marijuana is often the center of debate. While some states have legalized its use for both recreational and medical reasons, others have yet to do so. Some people maintain that it's not necessary and likely to bring about detrimental drug habits and cause disruptive behaviors, while others say it's harmless and crucial for their mental and physical health. Many areas also grapple with legislation issues, often attempting to come down hard on growers and dispensaries, while placing limits on use.

At times, the fight seems to be nothing more than an uphill battle. During a recent senate hearing in Michigan, for example, a veteran plagued with post-traumatic stress disorder urged the panel to vote "no" on a bill that would greatly jeopardize medical marijuana use. For people like him, who live with severe bouts of anxiety, stress and sadness after having seen wartime horrors, medical marijuana is essential and something he credits for saving his life. Sadly, however, when he presented his story during the hearing, he was kicked out after state Senator Rick Jones expressed concern over the veteran's brief display of name calling (it should be pointed out that Jones once called a public relations professional "a hooker" in an email).(4)

Debates surrounding this topic will undoubtedly rage on. In the midst of it all, it's important to remain informed and make your opinions on the matter clear by attending local meetings, writing to legislature or even expressing your views by signing petitions. Of course, always be on the lookout for Natural News articles, where you'll find a bevy of information on this issue.

Sources for this article include:

(1) IBTimes.com

(2) OnlineLibrary.Wiley.com

(3) NaturalNews.com

(4) NaturalNews.com

#### Top Ten Entheogens

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 2:35 PM comments (0)

This is a list of entheogens – which, according to Wikipedia are: in the strictest sense, psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. Plants and herbs have been used for many centuries in religious contexts due to their mind altering nature. In recent times many have been taken up by the “casual drug user” as a cheap alternative to chemical based drugs.If you have had any experiences with the following plants, be sure to tell us about it in the comments – we are always interested in hearing about our readers experiences in areas like this. So, onward, the list:10

‘Heavenly Blue’ Morning Glory

Ipomoea 'Heavenly Blue' (2)Active Constituents: Ergoline alkaloidsThis is a species of morning glory native to the New World tropics, and widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere.

The seeds have been used for centuries by many Mexican Native American cultures as an hallucinogen; they were known to the Aztecs as ‘tlitliltzin’, the Nahuatl word for “black”. Their traditional use by Mexican Native Americans was first discovered in 1941, brought to light in a report documenting use going back to Aztec times. It was reported in 1960 that the seeds of Ipomoea tricolor were used as sacraments by certain Zapotecs, sometimes in conjunction with the seeds of Rivea corymbosa, another species which has a similar chemical composition. Hallucinations are the predominant effect after ingesting morning glory seeds. Vivid visual and tactile hallucinations, as well as increased awareness of colors have been described.

Amanita muscaria

Fly-AgaricActive Constituents: Ibotenic acidThe quintessential image of an hallucinogenic ‘toadstool’, with it’s red cap and white spots. This fungus is native to birch, pine, spruce, fir and cedar woodlands throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These mushrooms were widely used as a hallucinogenic drug by many of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. In western Siberia, the use of A. muscaria was restricted to shamans, who used it as an alternate method of achieving a trance state. In the east, A. muscaria was used by both shamans and common people alike, recreationally as well as religiously. Unlike the hallucinogenic mushrooms of the Psilocybe, Amanita muscaria has been rarely consumed recreationally in modern times. Depending on habitat and the amount ingested per body weight, effects can range from nausea and twitching to drowsiness, auditory and visual distortions, mood changes, euphoria, relaxation, and loss of equilibrium. Amnesia frequently results following recovery.

Jimson Weed, or Hell’s Bells

Datura stramonium

JimsonActive Constituents: Atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamineNative to either India or Central America, it was used as a mystical sacrament in both possible places of origin. The Native Americans have used this plant in sacred ceremonies. The sadhus of Hinduism also used it as a spiritual tool, smoked with cannabis in traditional pipes.

In the United States it is called Jimson Weed, Hell’s Bells (based on the flowers’ shape) or Jamestown Weed. It got this name from the town of Jamestown, Virginia, where British soldiers were secretly (or accidentally) drugged with it, while attempting to suppress Bacon’s Rebellion. They spent several days generally appearing to have gone insane, and failed at their mission. The effects have been described as a living dream: consciousness falls in and out, people who don’t exist or are miles away are conversed with, etc, and the effects can last for days. It may be described as a “real” trance when a user under the effect can be awake but completely disconnected from his immediate environment.

Wormwood

Artemisia absinthium

450Px-Artemisia Absinthium P1210748Active Constituents: ThujoneNative to temperate regions of Europe, Asia and northern Africa, the religious association with this plant began with its strong association with the Ancient Greek moon goddess Artemis. In Hellenistic culture, Artemis was a goddess of the hunt, and protector of the forest and children. It is perhaps more famously known as the key ingredient in Absinthe, the favorite drink of 19th Century Bohemian artists. The most commonly reported Absinthe experience is a ‘clear-headed’ feeling of inebriation — a form of ‘lucid drunkenness’.

Kava

Piper methysticum

Kava1Active Constituents: KavalactonesAn ancient crop of the western Pacific. The word ‘kava’ is used to refer both to the plant and the beverage produced from it. Kava is used for medicinal, religious, political, cultural and social purposes throughout the Pacific. These cultures have a great respect for the plant and place a high importance on it. The drink is used to this day at social gatherings to relax after work, though it has great religious significance, and is used to obtain inspiration. The effects of the drink (it is also occasionally chewed), in order of appearance, are slight tongue and lip numbing; mildly talkative and sociable behavior, clear thinking, calming effects, relaxed muscles, and a very euphoric sense of well-being.

Salvia, or Diviner’s Sage

Salvia divinorum

Salvia-D-DivinorumActive Constituents: Diterpenoid known as “Salvinorin A”Salvia divinorum is native to certain areas in the Sierra Mazateca of Oaxaca, Mexico, where it is still used by the Mazatec Indians, primarily to facilitate shamanic visions in the context of curing or divination. Shamans crush the leaves to extract leaf juices; they usually mix these juices with water to create an infusion or ‘tea’ which they drink to induce visions in ritual healing ceremonies.

Salvia can be chewed, smoked, or taken as a tincture to produce experiences ranging from uncontrollable laughter to much more intense and profoundly altered states. The duration when smoked is much shorter than for some other more well-known psychedelics, and Salvia typically last for only a few minutes. The most commonly reported after-effects include an increased feeling of insight and improved mood, and a sense of calmness and increased sense of connection with nature.

Magic Mushrooms

Psilocybin mushrooms

Mushrooms-TopperActive Constituents: Psilocybin and psilocinPsilocybin mushrooms have been part of human culture as far back as the earliest recorded history. Ancient paintings of ‘mushroomed’ humanoids dating to 5,000 B.C. have been found in caves of Northern Algeria. Central and Southern America cultures built temples to mushroom gods and carved “mushroom stones”, dated to as early as 1000-500 B.C. Psilocybian mushrooms were used in ritual and ceremony among the Aztecs, served with honey or chocolate at some of their holiest events. The experience of ingestion is typically inwardly oriented, with strong visual and auditory components. Visions and revelations may be experienced, and the effect can range from exhilarating to distressing.

Peyote

Lophophora williamsii

Lophophora Williamsii, El Oso, Coahuila+Active Constituents: Phenethylamine alkaloids, principally MescalineFrom early records (specimens from Texas have dated from 3780 to 3660 BC), peyote has been used by indigenous peoples, such as the Huichol of northern Mexico and by various Native American tribal groups, native to or relocated to the Southern Plains States of Oklahoma and Texas. Peyote and its associated religion, however, are fairly recent in terms of usage and practice among tribes in the Southwestern United States; Their acquisition of the peyote religion and use of peyote can be firmly dated to the early 20th Century. Typically consumed as a tea, the effects last about 10 to 12 hours. When combined with appropriate setting, peyote is reported to trigger states of deep introspection and insight, described as being of a metaphysical or spiritual nature. At times, these can be accompanied by rich visual or auditory effects.

Ayahuasca, or Yage

ChacrunaActive Constituents: Beta-carboline harmala alkaloids, MAOIs and DMT (dimethyltryptamine)Includes BOTH Ayahuasca Vine (Banisteriopsis caapi) & Chacruna Shrub (Psychotria viridis). The word “Ayahuasca”, translated to “vine of the souls”, refers to a medicinal and spiritual drink incorporating the above plants. When brewed together, and consumed in a ceremonial setting, these plants are capable of producing profound mental, physical and spiritual effects. Ayahuasca is mentioned in the writings of some of the earliest missionaries to South America. It may be considered as a particular shamanic medicinal brew, or even as an entire medicinal tradition specific to the Amazonas. The effects of the drink vary greatly based on the potency of the batch, and the setting of the ritual. They generally include hallucinogenic visions, the exact nature of which seem unique to each user. Vomiting can be an immediate side-effect, and is said to aid in “purification”.

Cannabis

42128524 Cannabis Pa416Active Constituents: THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)The cannabis plant has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance-inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. In India, it has been engaged by itinerant sadhus (ascetics) for centuries, and in modern times the Rastafari movement has embraced it. Some historians and etymologists have claimed that cannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews, early Christians, and Muslims of the Sufi order. Elders of the modern religious movement known as the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church consider cannabis to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ. Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids which produce mental and physical effects when consumed. As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried buds or flowers (marijuana), resin (hashish), or various extracts collectively known as hashish oil. The psychoactive effects of cannabis, are subjective and can vary based on the individual. Some effects may include a general change in consciousness (altered perception), mild euphoria, feelings of well-being, relaxation or stress reduction, lethargy, joviality, enhanced recollection of episodic memory, increased sensuality, increased awareness of sensation, and occasionally paranoia, agitation or anxiety.

Source: Listverse

#### The Great CBD Migration: How a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid May Champion Cannabis Reform

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 2:20 PM comments (0)

Cannabis is emerging from the shadow of prohibition, and there are many factors that are contributing to this recent wave of legalization. States are increasingly adopting new laws that acknowledge the effectiveness of cannabis as both a medicine, and a taxable commodity that could boost struggling state economies. However, the most recognizable shift is based on one specific component that is forcing our society to reconsider our perception of cannabis, and this tiny cannabinoid is known as CBD (cannabidiol). In just over a year, the governors of fifteen states have signed laws that call for increased research and availability of medical treatment options that are based on CBD. This major shift is focused on the social pressure to recognize anecdotal evidence from the parents of children who experience seizures associated with debilitating disorders like Dravet’s Syndrome. The United States government now must reevaluate the long-held position that cannabis provides absolutely no medical benefit, as parents migrate their families to the increasing number of regions that support medical cannabis. Smoke Reports believes that it is important for the community to follow this phenomenon closely, as the conversation driving this shift holds the keys to a complete social review of cannabis.

High-CBD Cannabis Flowers Extracted into Oil

CBD is Making States Turn Over a New Leaf

There has been a substantial wave of support for laws supporting CBD-based treatment options. Since the end of March in 2014, fifteen states have adopted legislation that supports increased research and availability of CBD medication. Note that these fifteen states typically vote very conservatively when it comes to social issues, which shows how powerful the cannabis conversation has become. Here is a timeline of CBD-only legislation laws signed in the last 15 months:

Utah (3/25/14)

Alabama (4/1/14)

Kentucky (4/11/14)

Wisconsin (4/16/14)

Mississippi (4/17/14)

Tennessee (5/16/14)

South Carolina (5/28/14)

Iowa (5/30/14)

Florida (6/16/14)

North Carolina (7/3/14)

Missouri (7/18/14)

Virginia (2/26/15)

Georgia (4/16/15)

Oklahoma (4/30/15)

Texas (6/1/15)

Almost all of the states focus their laws on CBD medication specifically for children suffering from constant seizures, however some states such as Florida opened their medical programs to support other medical issues such as cancer, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and PTSD. Many of the states even named their initiatives after a local child championing the push for legalization. It is harder for politicians to oppose a bill dedicated to helping a very young child in immense discomfort. All of the states provided certain legal protections for families obtaining CBD oil, however, not every state listed has legalized the production of cannabis oil, which means some families still must travel to surrounding regions to find the medicine for their children.

The Families Behind the CBD Movement

There are several families around the nation that have championed the social push to make non-psychoactive cannabis treatment available, especially for children. The mounting anecdotal evidence provided by parents of sick children is forcing state legislatures to consider cannabis as having some sort of medical benefit (contrary to the federal classification that cannabis has no medical benefit in any situation). While there are many families seeking alternative treatments for their children through cannabis, a handful have taken it upon themselves to publicly address the risks and sacrifices that they have endured as parents trying to alleviate their child’s pain with CBD.

Carly Chandler, a four-year-old girl from the Birmingham, Alabama region, has a rare genetic disorder (CDKL5) that inflicts daily seizures. Under Carly’s Law, the University of Alabama at Birmingham is conducting a study with permission to treat up to 50 adults and 50 children, a major win for a traditionally conservative state.

Harper Grace Durval is a two-year-old from Mississippi with Dravet Syndrome, a form of epilepsy. Harper Grace was under treatment that required five medications, taken twice a day. The Mississippi law, passed in April of 2014, calls for specific research on the effectiveness of CBD at Ole Miss.

Haleigh Cox is a four-year-old girl from Georgia suffering from severe seizures. Her parents moved her from Georgia to Colorado, after hearing about the success of other families, but being unable to acquire any cannabis medicine in their home state. Haleigh has made so much progress since arriving in Colorado that it has forced Georgia to pass a law to make CBD treatments available, so that future families are not forced to migrate in order to save their child’s life.

Jayden David, a young boy from Tracy, California, was experiencing violent seizures that kept him from talking, eating solid food, and just about everything else a young six-year-old should be happily doing. In June of 2011, Jayden’s father gave him cannabis oil in a final attempt to provide the young boy with relief. The seizures almost immediately disappeared, and for the last few years Jayden has been able to reduce the number of pharmaceuticals he needs to be healthy. Jayden’s father, Jason David, gives one of the most clear accounts as to why cannabis treatment needs to be available, especially for young children suffering in extreme pain. Mr. David will tell you that the risk of providing his child with cannabis has been far outweighed by the obvious relief that Jayden now receives from cannabis, and that for the first time, Jayden gets to live as a young boy, and no longer be addicted to the pharmaceutical drugs (benzodiazepines, and a myriad of other narcotics) that doctor’s prescribe for traditional treatment. Jayden is yet another example of the research needed so that doctor’s nationwide can confidently prescribe cannabis over the dangerous, and sometimes deadly, narcotics.

Charlotte Figi is a celebrity when it comes to cannabis treatment for children. In 2007, at the tender age of three months, Charlotte had her first seizure. Doctors were unable to identify the cause, and sent the Figi family home. Charlotte’s seizures continued, and worsened. Charlotte’s parents searched the internet for possible treatments, and came across information that other children with Dravet’s were finding relief with cannabis oil. This was before Colorado voted for legalized cannabis, so the Figi’s needed a doctor’s medical recommendation to be able to give Charlotte cannabis medicine. Because childhood is such a sensitive time for brain development, the Figi’s struggled to find a doctor that would approve of young Charlotte being exposed to cannabis. After struggling to find a doctor to approve of Charlotte’s experimental use of cannabis to treat her seizures, the Figi’s lucked out and received their recommendation. Now the issue was obtaining low-THC, high-CBD cannabis oil for Charlotte, particularly because strains with this non-psychoactive ratio of cannabinoids were nearly impossible to find. The Stanley brothers ended up saving the day, and developed a stabilized high-CBD strain that they dubbed “Charlotte’s Web.” The Stanley brothers continue to produce this high-CBD variety for Colorado families and their sick kids. Charlotte Figi was referenced by Florida’s Governor Rick Scott when he signed their pro-CBD law, and the Charlotte’s Web strain is also the inspiration behind federal bill H.R. 1635, referred to as “Charlotte’s Web Medical Access Act of 2015,” with the purpose “to amend the Controlled Substances Act to exclude cannabidiol and cannabidiol-rich plants from the definition of marihuana, and for other purposes.” This is the first major instance in which the federal government has contemplated a redefinition of “marijuana” to encompass the many different components of the cannabis plant.

Future Cannabis Research Required

Cannabis appears to be helping children who were suffering under traditional treatment methods. Until recently, there has been an institutional lack of funded cannabis research, which keeps many doctors from prescribing cannabis in any form. Many people against cannabis point to the fact that the long terms effects of CBD on children have not been thoroughly studied. Parents of these afflicted children agree, there is not enough research to help improve the safety of cannabis medicine for their kids. These parents will also point out that their children were truly addicted to powerful pharmaceuticals before they tried cannabis, and that they would gladly support any research that may alleviate the pain and suffering of children in the future. Thank goodness that politicians across the country had enough empathy to hear these pleas. Almost every one of these new CBD laws calls for state-funded research performed at state universities, which marks a turning point in the future of a reasonable cannabis policy in the United States.

#### Why Animals Eat Psychoactive Plants

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 2:10 PM comments (0)

Johann Hari, author of Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs, learns about drunk elephants, the stoned water buffalo, and the grieving mongoose.

The United Nations says the drug war’s rationale is to build “a drug-free world — we can do it!” U.S. government officials agree, stressing that “there is no such thing as recreational drug use.” So this isn’t a war to stop addiction, like that in my family, or teenage drug use. It is a war to stop drug use among all humans, everywhere. All these prohibited chemicals need to be rounded up and removed from the earth. That is what we are fighting for.

I began to see this goal differently after I learned the story of the drunk elephants, the stoned water buffalo, and the grieving mongoose. They were all taught to me by a remarkable scientist in Los Angeles named Professor Ronald K. Siegel.

***

The tropical storm in Hawaii had reduced the mongoose’s home to a mess of mud, and lying there, amid the dirt and the water, was the mongoose’s mate — dead. Professor Siegel, a silver-haired official adviser to two U.S. presidents and to the World Health Organization, was watching this scene. The mongoose found the corpse, and it made a decision: it wanted to get out of its mind.

Two months before, the professor had planted a powerful hallucinogen called silver morning glory in the pen. The mongooses had all tried it, but they didn’t seem to like it: they stumbled around disoriented for a few hours and had stayed away from it ever since. But not now. Stricken with grief, the mongoose began to chew. Before long, it had tuned in and dropped out.

It turns out this wasn’t a freak occurrence in the animal kingdom. It is routine. As a young scientific researcher, Siegel had been confidently toldby his supervisor that humans were the only species that seek out drugs to use for their own pleasure. But Siegel had seen cats lunging at catnip — which, he knew, contains chemicals that mimic the pheromones in a male tomcat’s pee —so, he wondered, could his supervisor really be right? Given the number of species in the world, aren’t there others who want to get high, or stoned, or drunk?

This question set him on a path that would take twenty-five years of his life, studying the drug-taking habits of animals from the mongooses of Hawaii to the elephants of South Africa to the grasshoppers of Soviet-occupied Czechoslovakia. It was such an implausible mission that in one marijuana field in Hawaii, he was taken hostage by the local drug dealers, because when he told them he was there to see what happened when mongooses ate marijuana, they thought it was the worst police cover story they had ever heard.

What Ronald K. Siegel discovered seems strange at first. He explains in his book Intoxication:

After sampling the numbing nectar of certain orchids, bees drop to the ground in a temporary stupor, then weave back for more. Birds gorge themselves on inebriating berries, then fly with reckless abandon. Cats eagerly sniff aromatic “pleasure” plants, then play with imaginary objects. Cows that browse special range weeds will twitch, shake, and stumble back to the plants for more. Elephants purposely get drunk off fermented fruits. Snacks of “magic mushrooms” cause monkeys to sit with their heads in their hands in a posture reminiscent of Rodin’s Thinker. The pursuit of intoxication by animals seems as purposeless as it is passionate. Many animals engage these plants, or their manufactured allies, despite the danger of toxic or poisonous effects.

Noah’s Ark, he found, would have looked a lot like London on a Saturday night. “In every country, in almost every class of animal,” Siegel explains, “I found examples of not only the accidental but the intentional use of drugs.” In West Bengal, a group of 150 elephants smashed their way into a warehouse and drank a massive amount of moonshine. They got so drunk they went on a rampage and killed five people, as well as demolishing seven concrete buildings. If you give hash to male mice, they become horny and seek out females — but then they find “they can barely crawl over the females, let alone mount them,” so after a little while they yawn and start licking their own penises.

Excerpted from Johann Hari's Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs. Available from Amazon.

In Vietnam, the water buffalo have always shunned the local opium plants. They don’t like them. But when the American bombs started to fall all around them during the war, the buffalo left their normal grazing grounds, broke into the opium fields, and began to chew. They would then look a little dizzy and dulled. When they were traumatized, it seems, they wanted — like the mongoose, like us — to escape from their thoughts.

***

I kept returning to the UN pledge to build a drug-free world. There was one fact, above all others, that I kept placing next to it in my mind. It is a fact that seems at first glance both obvious and instinctively wrong. Only 10 percent of drug users have a problem with their substance. Some 90 percent of people who use a drug—the overwhelming majority—are not harmed by it. This figure comes not from a pro-legalization group, but from the United Nations Office on Drug Control, the global coordinator of the drug war. Even William Bennett, the most aggressive drug czar in U.S. history, admits: “Non-addicted users still comprise the vast bulk of our drug-involved population.”

This is hard to dispute, yet hard to absorb. If we think about people we know, it seems about right—only a small minority of my friends who drink become alcoholics, and only a small minority of the people I know who use drugs on a night out have become addicts.

But if you think about how we are trained to think about drugs, this seems instinctively wrong, even dangerous. All we see in the public sphere are the casualties. The unharmed 90 percent use in private, and we rarely hear about it or see it. The damaged 10 percent, by contrast, are the only people we ever see using drugs out on the streets. The result is that the harmed 10 percent make up 100 percent of the official picture. It is as if our only picture of drinkers were a homeless person lying in a gutter necking neat gin. This impression is then reinforced with the full power of the state. For example, in 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a massive scientific study of cocaine and its effects. They discovered that “experimental and occasional use are by far the most common types of use, and compulsive/dysfunctional [use] is far less common.” The U.S. government threatened to cut off funding to the WHO unless they suppressed the report. It has never been published; we know what it says only because it was leaked.

As I write this, I feel uncomfortable. The 10 percent who are harmed are most vivid to me—they are some of the people I love most. And there is another, more complex reason why I feel awkward writing about this. For anybody who suspects that we need to reform the drug laws, there is an easier argument to make, and a harder argument to make.

The easier argument is to say that we all agree drugs are bad — it’s just that drug prohibition is even worse. I have made this argument in debates in the past. Prohibition, I said, doesn’t stop the problem, it simply piles another series of disasters onto the already-existing disaster of drug use. In this argument, we are all antidrug. The only difference is between prohibitionists who believe the tragedy of drug use can be dealt with by more jail cells in California and more military jeeps on the streets of Juárez, and the reformers who believe the tragedy of drug use can be dealt by moving those funds to educate kids and treat addicts.

There’s a lot of truth in this argument. It is where my instincts lie. But — as I try to think through this problem — I have to admit it is only a partial truth.

Here, I think, is the harder, more honest argument. Some drug use causes horrible harm, as I know very well, but the overwhelming majority of people who use prohibited drugs do it because they get something good out of it — a fun night out dancing, the ability to meet a deadline, the chance of a good night’s sleep, or insights into parts of their brain they couldn’t get to on their own. For them, it’s a positive experience, one that makes their lives better. That’s why so many of them choose it. They are not suffering from false consciousness, or hubris. They don’t need to be stopped from harming themselves, because they are not harming themselves. As the American writer Nick Gillespie puts it: “Far from our drugs controlling us, by and large we control our drugs; as with alcohol, the primary motivation is to enjoy ourselves, not to destroy ourselves . . . There is such a thing as responsible drug use, and it is the norm, not the exception.”

So, although it is against my instincts, I realized I couldn’t give an honest account of drug use in this book if I talked only about the harm it causes. If I’m serious about this subject, I also have to look at how drug use is deeply widespread — and mostly positive.

***

Professor Siegel’s story of buzzing cows and tripping bees is, he believes, a story about us. We are an animal species. As soon as plants began to be eaten by animals for the first time — way back in prehistory, before the first human took his first steps — the plants evolved chemicals to protect themselves from being devoured and destroyed. But these chemicals could, it soon turned out, produce strange effects. In some cases, instead of poisoning the plant’s predators, they — quite by accident — altered their consciousness. This is when the pleasure of getting wasted enters history. All human children experience the impulse early on: it’s why when you were little you would spin around and around, or hold your breath to get a head rush. You knew it would make you sick, but your desire to change your consciousness a little — to experience a new and unfamiliar rush — outweighed your aversion to nausea.

There has never been a society in which humans didn’t serially seek out these sensations. High in the Andes in 2000 b.c., they were making pipes through which they smoked hallucinogenic herbs. Ovid said drug-induced ecstasy was a divine gift. The Chinese were cultivating opium by a.d. 700. Hallucinogens and chemicals caused by burning cannabis were found in clay pipe fragments from William Shakespeare’s house. George Washington insisted that American soldiers be given whiskey every day as part of their rations.

“The ubiquity of drug use is so striking,” the physician Andrew Weil concludes, that “it must represent a basic human appetite.” Professor Siegel claims the desire to alter our consciousness is “the fourth drive” in all human minds, alongside the desire to eat, drink, and have sex—and it is “biologically inevitable.” It provides us with moments of release and relief.

***

Thousands of people were streaming in to a ten-day festival in September where they were planning — after a long burst of hard work — to find some chemical release, relaxation, and revelry. They found drugs passed around the crowd freely, to anybody who wanted them. Everyone who took them soon felt an incredible surge of ecstasy. Then came the vivid, startling hallucinations. You suddenly felt, as one user put it, something that was “new, astonishing, irrational to rational cognition.”

Some people came back every year because they loved this experience so much. As the crowd thronged and yelled and sang, it became clear it was an extraordinary mix of human beings. There were farmers who had just finished their harvest, and some of the biggest celebrities around. Their names—over the years—included Sophocles, Aristotle, Plato, and Cicero.

The annual ritual in the Temple at Eleusis, eighteen kilometers northwest of Athens, was a drug party on a vast scale. It happened every year for two thousand years, and anybody who spoke the Greek language was free to come. Harry Anslinger said that drug use represents “nothing less than an assault on the foundations of Western civilization,” but here, at the actual foundations of Western civilization, drug use was ritualized and celebrated.

I first discovered this fact by reading the work of the British critic Stuart Walton in a brilliant book called Out of It, and then I followed up with some of his sources, which include the work of Professor R. Gordon Wasson, Professor Carl Ruck, and other writers.

Everyone who attended the Eleusinian mysteries was sworn to secrecy about what happened there, so our knowledge is based on scraps of information that were recorded in its final years, as it was being suppressed. We do know that a special cup containing a mysterious chemical brew of hallucinogens would be passed around the crowd, and a scientific study years later seemed to prove it contained a molecular relative of LSD taken from a fungus that infested cereal crops and caused hallucinations. The chemical contents of this cup were carefully guarded for the rest of the year. The drugs were legal – indeed, this drug use was arranged by public officials – and regulated. You could use them, but only in the designated temple for those ten days. One day in 415 b.c., a partygoing general named Alcibiades smuggled some of the mystery drug out and took it home for his friends to use at their parties. Walton writes: “Caught in possession with intent to supply, he was the first drug criminal.”

But while it was a crime away from the Temple and other confined spaces, it was a glory within it. According to these accounts, it was Studio 54 spliced with St. Peter’s Basilica – revelry with religious reverence.

They believed the drugs brought them closer to the gods, or even made it possible for them to become gods themselves. The classicist Dr. D.C.A.

Hillman wrote that the “founding fathers” of the Western world

were drug users, plain and simple: they grew the stuff, they sold the stuff, and more important, they used the stuff . . . The ancient world didn’t have a Nancy Reagan, it didn’t wage a billion-dollar drug war, it didn’t imprison people who used drugs, and it didn’t embrace sobriety as a virtue. It indulged . . . and from this world in which drugs were a universally accepted part of life sprang art, literature, science, and philosophy . . . The West would not have survived without these so-called junkies and drug dealers.

There was some political grumbling for years that women were behaving too freely during their trances, but this annual festival ended only when the drug party crashed into Christianity. The early Christians wanted there to be one route to ecstasy, and one route only – through prayer to their God. You shouldn’t feel anything that profound or pleasurable except in our ceremonies at our churches. The first tugs towards prohibition were about power, and purity of belief. If you are going to have one God and one Church, you need to stop experiences that make people feel that they can approach God on their own. It is no coincidence that when new drugs come along, humans often use religious words to describe them, like ecstasy. They are often competing for the same brain space – our sense of awe and joy.

So when the emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and brought the Empire with him, the rituals at the Temple at Eleusis were doomed. They were branded a cult and shut down by force. The new Christianity would promote wine only in tiny sips. Intoxication had to be sparing. This “forcible repression by Christianity,” Walton explains, “represents the beginning of systematic repression of the intoxication impulse in the lives of Western citizens.”

Yet in every generation after, some humans would try to rebuild their own Temple at Eleusis—in their own minds, and wherever they could clear a space free of local Anslingers.

Harry Anslinger, it turns out, represented a trend running right back to the ancient world.

When Sigmund Freud first suggested that everybody has elaborate sexual fantasies, that it is as natural as breathing, he was dismissed as a pervert and lunatic. People wanted to believe that sexual fantasy was something that happened in other people – filthy people, dirty people. They took the parts of their subconscious that generated these wet dreams and daydreams and projected them onto somebody else, the depraved people Over There, who had to be stopped. Stuart Walton and the philosopher Terence McKenna both write that we are at this stage with our

equally universal desire to seek out altered mental states. McKenna explains: “We are discovering that human beings are creatures of chemical habit with the same horrified disbelief as when the Victorians discovered that humans are creatures of sexual fantasy and obsession.”

Just as we are rescuing the sex drive from our subconscious and from shame, so we need to take the intoxication drive out into the open where it can breathe. Stuart Walton calls for a whole new field of human knowledge called “intoxicology.” He writes: “Intoxication plays, or has played, a part in the lives of virtually everybody who has ever lived . . . To seek to deny it is not only futile; it is a dereliction of an entirely constitutive part of who we are.”

***

After twenty-five years of watching stoned mice, drunken elephants, and tripping mongooses, Ronald K. Siegel tells me he suspects he has learned something about this. “We’re not so different from the other animal life-forms on this planet,” he says.

When he sees people raging against all drug use, he is puzzled. “They’re denying their own chemistry,” he says. “The brain produces endorphins. When does it produce endorphins? In stress, and in pain. What are endorphins? They are morphine-like compounds. It’s a natural occurrence in the brain that makes them feel good . . . People feel euphoric sometimes. These are chemical changes – the same kind of chemical changes, with the same molecular structures, that these plants [we use to make our drugs] are producing . . . We’re all producing the same stuff.”

Indeed, he continues, “the experience you have in orgasm is partially chemical – it’s a drug. So people deny they want this? Come on! . . . It’s fun. It’s enjoyable. And it’s chemical. That’s intoxication.” He seems for a moment to think back over all the animals guzzling drugs he has watched over all these years. “I don’t see,” he says, “any difference in where the chemical came from.”

This is in us. It is in our brains. It is part of who we are.

HEADLINES:

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The United Nations declared coca leaves an illegal substance in 1961, but Pope Francis told the government of Bolvia to break out the leaves when he arrives for a visit later this month – he plans to chew them. Coca leaves, which are the raw ingredient of cocaine, are legal in Bolivia for religious and […]

How do Balinese shroom dealers stay out of prison?

Indonesia has some of the most draconian drugs laws in the world. Smugglers and dealers face execution. (Earlier this year Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran were put to death by firing squad for attempting to smuggle heroin into Australia). Magic mushrooms are also illegal in Indonesia. Possession could result in a minimum four-year and maximum […]

Michele Leonhart, head of scandal-plagued DEA, expected to resign

Michele Leonhart, who has reigned over an out-of-control Drug Enforcement Administration since 2007, is expected to resign as administrator soon.

READ MORE AT http://boingboing.net/2015/01/20/why-animals-eat-psychoactive-p.html

#### Peyote and other Psychoactive Cactii

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 2:05 PM comments (0)

Peyote and other Psychoactive Cactii

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How to use them - How to extract them

What they contain - Where to obtain them

How to cultivate them and increase their potency

35 different species discussed

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by

Adam Gottleib

1977

Index:

INTRODUCTION

MESCALINE, PEYOTE AND THE LAW

PEYOTE

THE EXPERIENCE

METHODS OF USE

FINDING AND PICKING PEYOTE

OTHER PEYOTE-TYPE CACTI OF CENTRAL MEXICO

CULTIVATION OF PSYCHOACTIVE CACTI

INCREASING THE POTENCY OF PSYCHOACTIVE CACTI

EXTRACTING PURE MESCALINE FROM PEYOTE OR SAN PEDRO CACTUS

MIXED ALKALOID EXTRACTIONS

DICTIONARY OF CACTUS ALKALOIDS

SUPPLIERS

INTRODUCTION

For many years most of us have been aware of the psychoactive effects of Peyote. More recently in drug-oriented literature there have been numerous references to other cacti believed to have hallucinogenic properties. Among these are Doñana from northern Mexico, San Pedro from the Andes, three related mescaline-bearing species from South America, and at least 15 species used by the Indians of Central Mexico as Peyote substitutes. Botanists and Chemists are now studying the constitutes of these cacti and are making some remarkable discoveries. In this guide we will consider each of these cacti and bring the reader up to date on what scientists have learn ed about them. The various methods of using these cacti are also discussed. Directions are given for cultivating cacti and increasing the yield of mescaline and other alkaloids. There are instructions for extracting mescaline from Peyote and San Pedro, and mixed alkaloids from Doñana and other cacti. We also include a brief discussion of the legal aspects of these hallucinogenic cacti and give the names and addresses of legitimate suppliers from whom these plants can be obtained at reasonable prices.

MESCALINE, PEYOTE AND THE LAW

Both mescaline and Peyote are illegal under the statutes of the [U.S.] Federal Government and most States. Members of the Native American Church are permitted the ritual use of peyote because they established it as a religious sacrement long before these laws came into existence. Members are not permitted to use mescaline, however. Several other cacti such as San Pedro also contain mescaline. Technically it would be illegal to possess these, but because they are common ornamental plants it is permissable to use these cacti for normal horticultural purposes. If a person should attempt to use any of these plants for a psychedelic experience, prosecution is possible. If he were to extract the mescaline from these, the alkaloid would definitely be contraband material. It is important that this point be made clear because the mescaline extraction process is given in this guide. To extract the alkaloids from Doñana and other non-mescaline bearing cacti is not illegal. The information in this guide is presented for the sake of furthering knowledge. The Author can assume no responsibility for how anyone may apply it.

PEYOTE

This spineless, tufted, blue-green, button-like cactus, known botanically as LOPHOPHORA WILLIAMSII, is the most famous of the hallucinogenic cacti. It grows wild from Central Mexico to Northern Texas. It's known history dates back to pre-Columbian times; possibly as early as 300 B.C. During the past two centuries the religious use of Peyote has spread northward into the United States and Canada among many of the Plains Indian Tribes such as the Navajo, Comanche, Sioux, and Kiowa. This cactus eventually came to replace the hallucinogenic but dangerous red mescal bean (SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA) as a ceremonial sacrement. During the 1800's the North American Peyote ritual was standardized. By 1920 the ceremonial practices of most tribes were identical with only minor variations.

(Note: In Mexico there is a popular liquor called mescal. Many people believe that it is made from the Peyote cactus. Actually it is fermented from the Maguey plant, a large succulent of the Amaryllis family with sword-like leaves. This plant does not contain mescaline or related alkaloids.)

It was in 1896 that Arthur Heffter extracted mescaline from Peyote and tested it upon himself. This was the first hallucinogenic compound isolated by man. About 350 mg of mescaline is required for a psychotropic experience, although definite effects can be felt from as little as 100 mg. Mescaline may comprise as much as six percent of the weight of the dried button, but is more often closer to one percent. An average dried button the diameter of a quarter weighs about 2 grams. it usually takes 6-10 of these buttons to gain the desired effect.

It has been noted that the peyote experience is quantitatively somewhat different than that of pure mescaline, the former being more physical than the latter. This is due to several of the other alkaloids present in the cactus. These include: HORDENINE, N-METHYLMESCALINE, N-ACETYLMESCALINE, PELLOTINE, ANHALININE, ANHALONINE, ANHALIDNINE, ANHALONIDINE, ANHALAMINE, O-METHYLANHALONIDINE, TYRAMINE, and LOPHOPHORINE. Not all of these substances have psychopharmacological activity when administered singly. Some of them in combination apparently potentiate the effects of the mescaline and definitely alter some of the characteristics of the experience.

Two of these alkaloids - Hordenine and Tyramine - have been found to possess antibacterial activity, presumably because of their phenolic function. For ages the Huichol Indians have rubbed the juices of fresh peyote into wounds to prevent infection and to promote healing. The Tarahumara Indians consume small amounts of peyote to combat hunger, thirst and exhaustion especially while hunting. They have been known to run for days after a Deer with no food, water or rest. Peyote has many uses in folkloric medicine including the treatment of arthritis, consumption, influenza, intestinal disorders, diabetes, snake and scorpion bites and datura poisoning. The Huichol and other tribes recognize two forms of peyote. One is larger, more potent and more bitter than the other. They call it TZINOURITEHUA-HIKURI (peyote of the Gods). The smaller, more palatable, but milder buttons are called RHAITOUMUANITARI-HIKURI (peyote of the goddesses). The difference between the two forms may be due solely to how old the plants are. Alkaloids tend to accumulate in these cacti with age. It is possible, however, that the goddess peyote is a different species. Until recently botanists believed that the genus LOPHOPHORA consisted of a single but highly varible species. But in 1967 H.H. Bravo found near Queretaro in south-central Mexico another species which he named LOPHOPHORA DIFFUSA. This plant is yellow-green, soft, ribless and contains a somewhat different alkaloid mixture with far less mescaline that L. williamsi.

THE EXPERIENCE

About half an hour after ingesting the buttons the first effects are felt. There is a feeling of strange intoxication and shifting consciousness with minor perceptual changes. There may also be strong physical effects, including respiratory pressure, muscle tension (especially face and neck muscles), and queasiness or possible nausea. Any unpleasant sensations should disappear within an hour. After this the state of altered consciousness begins to manifest itself. The experience may vary with the individual, but among the possible occurences are feelings of inner tranquillity, oneness with life, heightened awareness, and rapid thought flow. During the next several hours these effects will deepen and become more visual. Colors may become more intense. Halos and auras may appear about things. Objects may seem larger, smaller , closer or more distant than they actually are. Often persons will notice little or no changes in visual perception while beholding the world about them, but upon closing their eyes they will see on their mind-screen wildly colorful and constant changing patterns. After several more hours the intensity of the experience gradually relaxes. Thought becomes less rapid and diffuse and more ordered. In the Navajo peyote ritual this change of thought flow is used wisely. During the first part of the ceremony the participants submit to the feeling and let the peyote teach them. During the latter part of the ritual the mind turns to thoughtful contemplation and understanding with the conscious intellect what the peyote has taught the subconscious mind.

The entire experience may last from 6 to 12 hours depending upon the individual and the amount of the plant consumed. After all the peyote effects have passed there is no comedown. One is likely to feel pleasantly relaxed and much a peace with the world. Although there is usually no desire for food during the experience one would probably have a wholesome appetite afterwards.

METHODS OF USE

The most common method of use is simply to chew up and swallow the fresh or dried buttons after removing the tufts and sand. This is the way it is almost always done at Indian ceremonies. Most people find the taste of this cactus unbearably bitter. The Indians, however, feel if ones heart is pure, the bitterness will not be tasted. Many have found that by not cringing from the taste, but rather letting ones senses plunge directly to the center of the bitterness, a sort of seperation from the offensive flavor is experienced. One is aware of the bitterness, but it no longer disturbs him. This is similar to the practice of bringing ones consciousness to the center of pain so that detachment may occur. It is not a difficult trick, but it takes some mental discipline. People who cannot endure the bitterness of peyote often go to various extremes to get it into the system without having to taste it. One fairly effective method is to drink unsweetened grapefruit juice while chewing it. The acids in the juice somewhat neutralize some of the bitter bases. Another method is to grind the dried buttons in a pepper grinder and pack the pulverised material into OOO capsules which are washed down with warm water. This is an effective method but it can take 20 capsules or more to get a 350mg dose of mescaline. Often people will boil the buttons in water for several hours to make a concentrated tea. A cup of this decoction can be swallowed in a few hasty gulps. Another preparation that is occasionally used is a jello-type dessert made with the fresh or dried plant. If spoonfulls are swallowed whole the gelatine serves as a sort of shield protecting the tastebuds from contact with the bitter material. It also slows down the the absorption of the drug in the digestive tract. This can be of value. It is generally recommended that anyone consuming peyote or mescaline ingest it gradually during a period of an hour or take two half doses 45 minutes apart. This is done to reduce the shock of the alkaloid to the system. Nausea or queasiness is sometimes experienced half an hour or so after taking peyote or mescaline. This usually passes in less than an hour. A sip of grapefruit juice will sometimes dispel the sick feeling. During the peyote ceremony Indians encourage vomiting rather than restraint if the urge presents itself. Throwing up, they believe, is apurging of both physical and spiritual ills. Most tribes fast for at least a day before taking peyote. This can also help to minimize gastric distress. One should not have eaten for at least 6 hours before taking either mescaline or peyote.

A method which avoids both the bitterness and the nausea is the rectal infusion. 8-16 grams of dried peyote is ground into a fine powder and boiled in a pint of water for 30 minutes. It is then strained and further boiled to reduce it's volume to one half pint. After cooling, this is taken as an enema using a small bulb syringe and retained for at least two hours. If there is any fecal matter in the lower bowel, a small cleansing enema should be taken and thoroughly expelled before having the peyote infusion. Otherwise much of the drug will be taken up by the feces and later voided.

FINDING AND PICKING PEYOTE

The peyote cactus may be found in many areas throughout the Chihuahuan Desert from central Mexico to southern Texas. When a site is found where peyote grows it usually does so in abundance. Sometimes it grows in open sunlit places, but more often it is found in clusters under fairly large shrubs, among mesquite or creosote bushes or in the shade of large succulents.

The best time to harvest any cactus is after a long dry spell. The worst time is during or after a rainy period. The plants build up alkaloids during dry seasons and draw upon them for growth when the rains come. If the plants are harvested during or after a wet spell, the alkaloid content may have dropped below 50 percent. If you have a soil test kit, you can get a good indication of the potency of cacti growing wild. If the soil is rich in nitrogen, the plants are likely to be rich in alkaloids.

When harvesting peyote, many people uproot the entire plant. This is unnecessary and wasteful. The roots contain no mescaline. Some of these plants have taken a long time to reach their size. A cactus three inches in diameter may be more than 20 years old. To collect peyote properly the button should be cleanly decapitated slightly above ground level. When the roots are left intact new buds will form where the old was removed. These will eventually develop into full-size buttons which may be harvested as before. Faulty harvesting method have seriously depleted populations of this cactus. Because of the presence of several phenolic alkaloids peyote cacti do not spoil easily and may be kept in their fresh form for several weeks after harvesting. If they are to be kept longer than this they must be refrigerated, frozen, or dried. The enzymes which cause the harvested plant to eventually decompose also destroy the mescaline and other alkaloids. To dry peyote buttons lay them out in the hot sun or in an oven at 250 degrees F until completely devoid of moisture.

OTHER PEYOTE-TYPE CACTI OF CENTRAL MEXICO

There are several cacti which are used by the Tarahumares and other tribes of central Mexico as substitutes for peyote. Many of these cacti are now under investigation for their alkaloidal content and psychopharmacological activity. Progress is somewhat retarded in the studies of the effects of these plants because almost all experimentation has been conducted on laboratory animals rather than humans. Some of these cacti have been found to contain mescaline and other related alkaloids with known sympathomimetic properties. Much further research is needed on these plants and their activity. However, we will attempt to bring the reader up to date on what is known about them at this time.

PEYOTILLO: This small cactus is botanically called PELECYPHORA ASELLIFORMIS. It is also known sometimes as the hatchet cactus because of its oddly flattened tubercules. It is often found growing in the state of San Louis Potosi in central Mexico. The plant contains traces of mescaline too minute to have any effect. It also contains small amounts of anhalidine, anhaladine, hordenine, N-methylmescaline, pellotine, 3-demethyltrichocereine, B-phenethylamine, N-methyl-B-phenethylamine, 3,4-dimethoxy-B-pheneththyl-amine, N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-B-phenethylamine, and 4-methoxy-B-phenethy- lamine. Most of these are found in peyote but in much larger quantities.

TSUWIRI: The botanical name of this cactus is ARIOCARPUS RETUSUS. The Huichol name tsuwiri means False Peyote. These people make long pilgrimages to the sacred places where peyote grows in search of that sacrement. They believe that if a person is has not been properly purified the spirits will lead him to the False Peyote and if he partakes of it, he will suffer madness or at least a bad trip. The plant is known among some tribes as Chautle or Chaute. These names are also used for other Ariocarpus species. This cactus contains hordenine, N-methyltryamine in fairly small amounts (about 0.02 percent) and traces of N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-B-phenethylamine, and N-methyl-4-B-phenethylamine. Aside from these alkaloids it also contains a flavone called retusin (3,3',4',7-tetramethoxy-5-hydroxyflavone). Although alkaloid content may very some at different seasons or stages of growth, from the scientific point of view the amounts present in this plant appear insufficient to produce any psychopharmacological response.

SUNAMI: This plant, ARIOCARPUS FISSURATUS, has been used in folkoric medicine of Mexico and southwestern USA. It is believed to be more potent than peyote and is used in the same manner as that cactus or made into an intoxicating drink. Among some tribes it is known as Chaute (a generic term for Ariocarpus species), living rock, or dry whiskey. The latter name, however, is often used for peyote and other psychoactive cacti. There are two varieties of A. fissuratus: var. lloydii and var. fissuratus. Both have about the same phytochemical makeup. The plant contains mostly hordenine, less N-methyl-tyramine and some N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-B-phenethylamine. Two other species, A. kotschoubeyanus also known as Pata De Venado or Pezuna De Venado, and A. trigonus also contain these alkaloids.

DOÑANA: This small cactus, CORYPHANTHA MACROMERIS, from northern Mexico has been found to contain macromerine, a phenethylamine drug reputed to have about 1/5 the potency of mescaline. It also contains normacromerine, N-formylnor-macromerin, tyramine, N-methyltramine, hordenine, N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-B-phenethylamine, metanephrine, and synephrine (a macromerine precursor). Other coryphantha species which contain macromerine with most of these other alkaloids include: C. pectinada, C. elephantideus, C. runyonii and C. cornifera var. echinus. Most of these alkaloids with the exception of macromerine have also been found in other varieties of C. conifera and in C. durangensis, C. ottonis, C. poselgeriana and C. ramillosa. Considering that there is usually no more than 0.1 percent macromerine in Doñana and that a gram or more of this alkaloid may be needed to produce a psychotropic effect, one would have to consume more than a kilo of the dried cactus or 20 pounds of the fresh plant. Clearly this is not possible for most humans. If one wishes to experiment with the hallucinogenic properties of Doñana, is is necessary first to make an extraction of the mixed alkaloids. Methods for this are given latter in this guide.

DOLICHOTHELE: Several tribes occasionally use any one of several species of Dolichothele as a peyote-like sacrament. These include D. baumii, D. longimamma, D. melalenca, D. sphaerica. D. surculosa, and D. uberiforma. Recent investigations have revealed in these the presence of small amounts of the alkaloids N-methylphenethylamine, B-O-methylsynephrine, N-methyltryamine, synephrine, hordenine, and dolichotheline (N-isovalerylhistamine).

MISCELLANEOUS: Several other cacti have been used by the Tarahumares as peyote substitutes. Among these are Obregonia denegrii, Aztekium ritterii, Astrophytum asterias, A. capricorne, A. myriostigma (Bishops cap), and Solisia pectinata. The Tarahumares also consume a cactus which they call Mulato (Mammillaria micromeris) and claim that it prolongs life, gives speed to runners, and clarifies vison for mystical insights. Another cactus similarly employed is known as Rosapara (Epitheliantha micromeris) is believed by many botanists to be the same species as Mulato, but at a later vegetative stage. The large cactus Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum, known locally as Cawe, has occasionally been used as a narcotic.

What little studies have been carried out on these cacti have revealed the presence of alkaloids most of the other species we have discussed, but no mescaline or macromerine. Many of these alkaloids have some psychopharma- calogical properties, but nothing to compare with those two drugs. Furthermore, the amounts of these alkaloids are usually so small as to be insignificant. For example, the species Obregonia denegrii contains tyramine 0.003 percent, hordenine 0.002 percent, and N-methyltyramin 0.0002 percent. These are all known sympathomimetics, but the percentages are far too minute to have any value. Several publications in recent years have mentioned the sacramental use of these cacti. As a result thousands of people have obtained these plants from cactus dealers and ingested them, usually with disappointing (and sometimes nauseating) results. Sadly many of these cacti are quite rare. If too many people destroy them experimentally, they may become a seriously endangered species. The most suitable cacti for a true psychedelic experience are peyote, which is for the most part illegal, and several species of Trichocereus (such as San Pedro), which are still legal.

SAN PEDRO: This cactus has gained considerable fame in the past five years after numerous reports that it is hallucinogenic, contains mescaline, and is readily available from cactus nurseries. This plant known botanically as Trichocereus pachanoi, is native to the Andes of Peru and Equador. Unlike the small peyote cactus, San Pedro is large and multi-branched. In it's natural enviorment, it often grows to heights of 10 or 15 feet. It's mescaline content is less than that of peyote (0.3 - 1.2 percent), but because of it's great size and rapid growth, it may provide a more economical source of mescaline than peyote. One plant may easily yield several pounds of pure mescaline upon extraction. San Pedro also contains tyramine, hordenine, 3-methoxytyramine, anhalaninine, anhalonidine, 3,4-dimethoxyphen-ethylamine, 3,4-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-B-phenethylamine, and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-B-phenethylamine. Some of these are known sympathomimetics. Others have no apparent effects when ingested by themselves. It is possible, however, that in combination with the mescaline and other active compounds they may have a synergistic influence upon one another and subtly alter the qualitive aspects of the experience. It is also possible that any compounds in the plant which act a mild MAO inhibitors will render a person vulnerable to some of the above mentioned amines which would ordinarily be metabolized before they could take effect.

The effects of San Pedro are in many ways more pleasant than those of peyote. To begin with, it's taste is only slightly bitter and the initial nausea is not as likely to occur. When the full psychotropic experience takes hold it is less overwhelming, more tranquil and not nearly as physical as that from peyote.

San Pedro may be eaten fresh or dried and taken in any of the manners described for peyote. Cuttings of San Pedro sold in the USA are usually about three feet long by four inches diameter. A piece 4-8 inches long will usually bring about the desired effect. The skin and spines must be removed. The skin should not be thrown away, however. The green tissue close to the skin contains a high concentration of mescaline. Some people chew the skin until all the juices are extracted. If you don't what to do this, the skins can be boiled in water for several hours to make a potent tea. The woody core of the cactus cannot be eaten. One can eat around it like a corn cob. The core does not have much alkaloid content, but can be mashed and boiled as a tea for what little is there.

To dry San Pedro slice the cactus into disks (actually stars) 1/2 inch thick and dry thoroughly in the sun or in an oven at 250 degrees F. The spines must be removed either before drying or before chewing. Also one must be careful of the splinters from the woody core.

If a tea is made from fresh San Pedro, the cactus must be either sliced, chopped or crushed before boiling.

San Pedro is a hardy cactus and endures cold climates quite well. It grows at altiudes from sea level to 9000 feet high in the Andes where it is most frequently found on western slopes. The soil in this region is very rich in humus and various minerals. This helps in the production of mescaline and other alkaloids.

There are several cacti which look much like San Pedro and have even been mistaken for it by trained botanists. In 1960 when Turner and Heyman discovered that San Pedro contained mescaline they erroneously identified the plant as Opunita cylindtica. A few other South American species of Trichocereus also contain mescaline with related alkaloids. These include: T. BRIDGESII, T. MACROGONUS, T.TERSCHECKII, and T. WERDERMANNIANUS.

There is evidence that the ritualistic use of San Pedro dates back to 1000 BC. Even today it is used by Curanderos (medicine men) of northern Peru. They prepare a drink called CIMORA from it and take this in a ceremonial setting to diagnose the spiritual or subconscious basis of a patient's illness.

CULTIVATION OF PSYCHOACTIVE CACTI

Any cactus can be grown from either seed or cutting. Seed grown plants can take many years to develop to a usable size, but should ultimately provide strong, healthy stock from which cuttings may be taken. Plants have to grow through the lengthy seedling stage. A San Pedro plant started from seed may be no more than 1/2 inch high after it's first year and perhaps an inch high after it's second; It's diameter being 1/8-1/4 during this time. A cutting of San Pedro may be 2 feet high by 4 inches diameter when planted. After 6 months it might easily gain 4-6 inches in height, send forth one or two branches 6-8 inches long by 2 inches diameter, and have sprouted several branch buds which will do the same within the next six months. When these offshoots are 6 inches or more long they may be broken off and planted following the instructions below. Or they may be allowed another 6 months growth until they deepen from pale to dark-green to give them time to accumulate alkaloids and then consumed.

Live plants of any of the species mentioned in this guide - with the excep- tion perhaps of peyote - can be purchased from suppliers named at the end of this chapter. Freshly harvested peyote cuttings are frequently available on the underground market for 50 cents to one dollar per button. When selecting peyote cuttings for planting choose ones which are firm and unbruised with at least 1/2 inch of taproot below the top. If the bottom of the taproot is still delicate where it has been cut, the button should be placed bottoms up in partial shade for a day or two until the severed area has a dry corky texture. If this is not done, the plant will be prone to rot.

The best soil mix can be prepared from 3 parts coarse sand, 1 part loam and 1 part leaf mold. Bake this mixture in an oven at 400 degrees F for an hour to kill fungus, bacteria, weed seeds and insect eggs. After the soil mix has cooled it is ready to use. The taproot of the plant may be dipped in a rooting mixture, such as ROOTONE, before planting. This enhances root development and hinders decay. Place the bottom just deep enough so that the soil does not quite touch the green part of the plant. The soil should be kept slightly moist and evenly so. If you are planting a tall cactus like San Pedro, the cutting should be placed deeply enough in the soil that it will have sufficient support to stand. San Pedro type cacti can also be laid upon the ground and will send down roots from their sides while the buds grow upwards. San Pedro can grow well in almost any soil as long as there is decent drainage.

Cacti tend to grow mostly during spring and autumn, to send down roots in the summer, and to rest through winter. Although cactus cuttings may be planted anytime of the year they stand the best chance if planted in the late spring. They should be watered thoroughly once or twice a week depending upon how rapidly moisture is lost. The soil an inch below the surface should always contain some moisture. Watering can be cut back to less than half during the winter.

INCREASING THE POTENCY OF PSYCHOACTIVE CACTI

There are several factors which influence production of mescaline and related alkaloids in cacti. Presence of a wide variety of trace minerals is import- ant. Occasional watering with Hoagland A-Z trace mineral concentrate provides these minerals. Combine 1 part concentrate with 9 parts water and water cacti with this once every two months.

Experiments conducted by Rosenberg, Mclaughlin and Paul at the University of of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1966 demonstrated that dopamine is a precursor of mescaline in the peyote cactus. Tyramine and dopa were also found to be mescaline precursors, but not as immediate and efficient as dopamine. It appears that in the plant tyosine breaks down to become tyramine and dopa. These then recombine to form dopamine which is converted to nor-mescaline and finally to mescaline. One can take advantage to this sequence by inject-ing each peyote plant with dopamine 4 weeks prior to harvesting. Much of the dopamine will convert to mescaline during this time, giving a considerable increase in the alkaloid of the plant. Prepare a saturated solution of free base dopamine in a .05 N solution of hydrochloric acid and inject 1-2 cc into the root of each plant and the same amount into the green portion above the root. Let the needle penetrate to the center of the plant, inject slowly and allow the needle to remain in place a few seconds after injection. It is best to deprive the plant of water for 1-2 weeks before injection. This makes the plant tissues take up the injection fluids more readily. If dopamine is not available, a mixture of tyramine and dopa can be used instead 6 weeks before harvesting for comparable results. San Pedro and other mescaline-bearing cacti can be similarly treated for increased mescaline production. Inject at the base of the plant and again every 3-4 inches following a spiral pattern up the length of the plant. A series of booster injections can be given to any of these cacti every 6-8 weeks and once again 4 weeks before harvesting for greater mescaline accumulation.

It is also possible to increase the macromerine and nor-macromerine content of Doñana cacti using tyramine or DL-norepinephrine as precursors. Injections should be given 20-25 days before harvesting. Series of injections can be given 45 days apart for higher alkaloid accumulation.

EXTRACTING PURE MESCALINE FROM PEYOTE OR SAN PEDRO CACTUS

The isolation of mescaline from cacti containing this alkaloid is not difficult to perform and is perhaps one of the most rewarding alchemical processes that one can attempt. The chemicals required for this process are readily available and their purchase arouses no suspicion or interest on the part of Government agencies. The equipment employed is not expensive or particularly complicated or can be constructed very easily from ordinary household items. The entire process can be carried out in any kitchen in the matter of hours by following the instructions below and in the final stages one can verify the success of the procedure by actually watching the crystals of mescaline precipitate in the solution. One kilo (2.2 lbs) of dried peyote buttons may yield between 10 and 60 grams of pure white needle crystals of mescaline depending on the potency of the plants used. On average the yield is about 20 grams. The usual underground price of a kilo of dried peyote ranges between $125 and$250 (25 to 50 cents per button). From indians in the southwestern USA the price is closer to $50 (10 cents per button). The street price for a gram of pure mescaline is$20 to $30 - if one is lucky enough to find it. One can obtain from a kilo of dried peyote$200 to $1200 worth of mescaline. If San Pedro is employed on may anticipate a yield of 3 to 12 grams of mescaline per kilo of dried cactus. One can legally purchase a kilo of dried San Pedro for$5 to $10 and from it extract$60 to $250 worth of pure mescaline. Grind a kilo of the dried cactus, place this in a large pressure cooker, cover with distilled water, and boil for 30 minutes. Strain the liquids and save them. Return the pulp to the pot, add more water and boil again for 30 minutes. Strain the liquids and combine them with the first strainings. Repeat this process about five times or until the pulp no longer has a bitter taste. Discard the pulp and reduce the volume of the combined strainings by boiling in an open pot. Do not use aluminum ware. When the liquids have been concentrated to the thickness of cream (about one quart), stop the boiling and stir in 400 grams of sodium hydroxide (lye). This makes the mescaline more soluble in benzene and less in water. If a large separatory funnel is available pour the liquids into it and add 1600 ml of benzene. Shake the funnel well for five minutes and let it stand for two hours. If a separatory funnel is not available the process can be carried out in a one gallon jug with a siphon attached. After standing for 2 hours the water layer will settle to the bottom and the benzene layer will float to the top. Between the two layers will be a thin emulsion layer of mixed water and benzene. Drain off the water and emulsion layers if you are using a separatory funnel or siphon off the benzene layer if you are using the makeshift jug-siphon apparatus. Be certain that neither the water or emulsion layers get into the benzene layer when separating. If any of these layers do get into the benzene during separation pour everything back into the separator, let it stand and repeat the separation more carefully. It is better to leave some benzene layer in the water and emulsion than to get emulsion and water into the benzene. Nothing will be wasted. All of the benzene which contains the mescaline will eventually be salvaged. Sometimes the layers will fail to separate properly. If this is the case immerse the funnel or jug in a deep pot of hot water for two hours. This will break up the emulsion and bring about the separation. Prepare a solution of 2 parts sulfuric acid and one part water. (never add water to the acid or it will splatter; add the acid a little at a time to the water by pouring it down the inside of the graduate or measuring cup containing the water.) Add 25 drops of the acid solution one drop at a time to the benzene extracts. Stopper the jug and shake well for one minute. Then let stand for five minutes. White streaks of mescaline sulfates should begin to appear in the benzene. If these do not appear, shake the jug more vigorously for two to three minutes and let it settle for five more minutes. I have found that when extracting mescaline from San Pedro it is sometimes necessary to shake the mixture more thoroughly and for a longer time to get the mescaline streaks to form. This is probably because of the lower mescaline content in the plant. This would also apply to any peyote that does not have a high mescaline content. After the streaks appear add 25 more drops of the acid solution in the same manner, shake as before and let settle for ten minutes. More streaks will appear. Add 15 drops of acid, shake and wait 15 minutes for streaks to form. Add 10 drops, shake and wait about 30 minutes. Test the solution with wide range pH paper. It should show that the solution is between pH 7.5 and 8. Allow the mescaline sulfate crystals to completely precipitate. Siphon off as much of the benzene as possible without disturbing the crystals on the bottom of the jug. The next steps are to salvage any mescaline still in the water and emulsion layer. Combine the benzene siphonings with the water/emulsion layer, shake these well together for 5 minutes and let settle for two hours as before. Carefully remove the benzene layer, treat it again with acid, precipitate the crystals and siphon off the benzene as in the previous steps. Recombine the siphoned benzene with the watery layer and repeat this again and again until no more crystals precipitate. Siphon off as much benzene as possible without drawing crystals through the siphon. The next step involves removing the remaining benzene from the crystals. There are two methods to choose from. The first is the quickest, but requires ether, which is dangerous and often difficult to procure. Shake up the crystals with the remaining benzene and pour it into a funnel with filter paper. After the benzene has passed through the filter rinse the empty jug with 100 ml of ether to salvage any crystals in the jug and pour the ether over the crystals in the filter. After the ether has passed through the filter repeat the rinsing with another 100 ml of ether. Then let the crystals dry. If ether is not available or you do not wish to use such a highly combustible substance, the precipitate and residual benzene can be poured into a beaker. The jug should be rinsed several more times with a little benzene and added to the beaker so no crystals are left behind. The beaker is then placed in a heat bath until all of the benzene has been evaporated. The next step is to purify the mescaline sulfate crystals. Dissolve the dry crystals in 200 ml of near-boiling distilled water. Add a pinch of activated charcoal (Norite) and filter while still hot through number 2 filter paper. The hot water which contains the mescaline will pass through the filter. The Norite absorbes impurities from the mescaline. After the liquids have passed through the filter pour a little more hot water over the filter to rinse through any remaining mescaline which may have impregnated the filter paper. Add 10 percent ammonia solution a few drops at a time to the hot filtrates until the solution registers between pH 6.5 and 7. Place a boiling stone in the solution and reduce it's volume to 75 ml by boiling. Remove the boiling stone and allow the solution to cool to room temperature. Place the solution in a freezer or in a refrigerator set to the coldest possible temperature and allow the solution to cool to almost freezing. Tiny white needle-like crystals form around the bottom and sides of the beaker. Break up the crystals with a glass stirring rod while the solution is still ice cold and pour through a filter. Mescaline sulfate is insoluable in near freezing water and will not pass through the filter. Rinse the beaker with fresh ice water and pour this over the filter. The crystals will now be pure white and can be dried under a heat lamp or in an over at 250 degrees F. More mescaline can be salvaged from the water that has passed through the filter by boiling these liquids down to about 20 ml, adding Norite while hot, filtering through number 2 paper as before, chilling the filterate to near freezing as once before, filtering while cold, rinsing with ice water and drying the crystals. This repetition should obtain at least two more grams of mescaline sulfate. If large volume mescaline extraction is being conducted it would be worthwhile to repeat this salvaging procedure several more times. MIXED ALKALOID EXTRACTIONS There are numerous methods for extracting a mixture of the alkaloids from cacti. Different methods may result in varying degrees of purity. For example, the dried, pulverized material can be defatted with petroleum ether or lighter fluid prior to extraction to remove lipid content; solvent combinations such as methanol/chloroform/ammonium hydroxide can be used for extracting; The extractions can be made acidic (pH 9.5) with 1-N hydrochloric acid, filtered and washed in a separatory funnel or improvised siphon-jug apparatus with diethyl ether, neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and evaporated to dryness. However, most of these solvents are difficult for the non-professional to obtain. Perhaps it is just as well since many of these solvents are either toxic or explosive if handled improperly. Also, we do not always know precisely what we are trying to extract. Some of the active principles may be non-alkaloidal. Too much purification might remove some of the active substances. The approach given here employs materials which may be purchased inexpensively at any supermarket and are safe to work with. This procedure extracts all of the alcohol and water-soluable alkaloids and non-alkaloidal materials and permits only the fibrous pulp to be discarded. Pulverize the dried cactus (tufts and spines need not be removed). Prepare a mixture of two parts isopropyl rubbing alcohol and one part clear, non-sudsing, unscented and untinted ammonia. Make the pulverized material soggy with this mixture and allow it to stand covered overnight. Do not use aluminum or iron wares during any of these steps. After soaking, cover the mash with isopropyl alcohol and boil in a heat bath for six hours. Strain the liquids through muslin and press as much liquid as possible from the pulp. With fresh alcohol repeat the boiling and straining three more times. Combine the strained liquids. Evaporate this in a heat bath until only a tar remains. (When evaporating a solvent use and electric range or hot plate rather than a gas stove. Have adequate ventilation and avoid breathing the fumes.) The tar can be further dried by spreading it thinly on a baking tray and placing it in an oven set at the lowest possible heat. Remove the tray once every fifteen minutes to examine the material. When it appears to be almost dry place it back in the oven, shut the heat off, and let it stay there until the oven cools. DICTIONARY OF CACTUS ALKALOIDS Anhalidine: Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid (2-methyl-6,7-dimeethoxy-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydroisoquinoline) Found in Lophophora and Pelecyphora. B-O-methylsynephrine: Phenolic B-phenethylamine found in citrus trees and some cacti. No data on pharmacology, but similar compound B-O-methylepin-ephrine produces considerable CNS stimulation. 3-dimethyltrichocereine: B-phenethylamine alkaloid (N,N-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-B-phenethylamine). Found in Pelecyphora and some Trichocereus species. Dolichotheline: Imidazole alkaloid properly known as N-isovalerylhistamine or 4(5)-[2-N-isovalerylaminoethyl]imidazole. Found only in Dolichothele and Gymnocactus species. Pharmacological action still unknown. Homoveratrilamine: a dimethoxy form of the mescaline molecule (3,4-dimethoxy-B-phenethylamine). It has no activity by itself, but may alter the mescaline experience slightly when taken in combination. It is found in San Pedro cactus and in the urine of certain types of schizophrenics. Hordenine: Phenolic B-phenethylamine found in barley roots and several cacti. Also known as anhaline (N,N-dimethyltyramine). Has mild sympatho-mimetic activity and antiseptic action. Macromerine: Nonphenolic B-phenethylamine (N,N-dimethyl-3,4-dimethoxy-B-hydroxy-B-phenethylamine. Found only in Coryphantha species. Reputed to possess 1/5 the potency of mescaline. Mescaline: Nonphenolic B-phenethylamine (3,4,5-trimethoxy-B-phenethylamine). Main psychoactive component of Peyote, San Pedro, and several other Trichocereus species. Also found in traces in Pelecyphorea. Metanephrine: Weak sympathomimetic found in Coryphantha species. 3-methoxytyramine: Pheneolic B-Phenethylamine found in the plant kingdom for the first time in San Pedro cacti. Also found in the urine of persons with certain types of brain disorders and cancer of the nervous system. N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-B-Phenethylamine: Found in Pelecyphora aselliformis, Coryphantha runyonii and Ariocarpus species, but not in peyote. Has slight activity in depletion of cardiac norepinephrine. N-methylphenethylamine: Nonphenolic B-phenethylamine alkaloid recently found in the Dolichothele species. Also found in Acacia species and other plants. Goats and sheeps in Texas sometimes eat Acacia berlandia and suffer a condition known as limberleg or Guajillo wobbles. Pressor action of this alkaloid has been shown experimentally to occur with low toxicity. Phenealanine and methionine are it's biosynthetic precursors. N-methyltyramine: Phenolic B-phenethylamine found in some cacti, mutated barley roots and a few other plants. Probably an intermediate phytochemical step in the methylation of tyramine to form candicine. Has mild sympathomimetic action and probable antibacterial properties. Normacromerine: Nonphenolic B-phenethylamine (N-dimethyl-3,4-dimethoxy-B-hydroxy-B-phenethylamine) found in Coryphantha species. Shows less effect on rats than macromerine. Pellotine: Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid (1,2-dimethyl-6,7-dimethoxy-8- hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) found in Lophophora and pelecyphora. Synephrine: Phenolic B-phenethylamine (N-methyl-4-hydroxy-B-phenethylamine) found in citrus plants, some cacti, and human urine. Well known sympathomimetic agent. Probably an intermediary in phytosynthesis of macromerine. Tyramine: Phenolic B-phenethylamine found in several cacti. Mild sympathomimetic with some possible antiseptic activity. http://www.lycaeum.org//~sputnik/Mescaline/CactusGuide.html #### Marijuana stops child's severe seizures  Posted on September 23, 2015 at 1:50 PM comments (0) By most standards Matt and Paige Figi were living the American dream. They met at Colorado State University, where they shared a love of the outdoors. After getting married, the couple bought a house and planned to travel the world. They did travel, but their plans changed when their first child was born in 2004. Max was 2 when they decided to have another child. The couple got the surprise of their lives when an ultrasound revealed not one but two babies. Charlotte and Chase were born October 18, 2006. "They were born at 40 weeks. ... Charlotte weighed 7 pounds, 12 ounces," Paige said. "They were healthy. Everything was normal." Seizures and hospital stays begin The twins were 3 months old when the Figis' lives changed forever. Charlotte had just had a bath, and Matt was putting on her diaper. "She was laying on her back on the floor," he said, "and her eyes just started flickering." The seizure lasted about 30 minutes. Her parents rushed her to the hospital. "They weren't calling it epilepsy," Paige said. "We just thought it was one random seizure. They did a million-dollar work-up -- the MRI, EEG, spinal tap -- they did the whole work-up and found nothing. And sent us home." Medical facts of marijuana Medical facts of marijuana 01:23 Kennedy: I was wrong on medical pot Kennedy: I was wrong on medical pot 02:07 Colorado's new frontier: Marijuana Colorado's new frontier: Marijuana 04:25 WEED: A Dr. Sanjay Gupta Special WEED: A Dr. Sanjay Gupta Special 00:30 A week later, Charlotte had another seizure. This one was longer, and it was only the beginning. Over the next few months, Charlotte -- affectionately called Charlie -- had frequent seizures lasting two to four hours, and she was hospitalized repeatedly. Doctors were stumped. Her blood tests were normal. Her scans were all normal. "They said it's probably going to go away," Paige recalled. "It is unusual in that it's so severe, but it's probably something she'll grow out of." But she didn't grow out of it. The seizures continued. The hospital stays got longer. One of the doctors treating Charlotte thought there were three possible diagnoses. The worse-case scenario? Dravet Syndrome, also known as myoclonic epilepsy of infancy or SMEI. Dravet Syndrome is a rare, severe form of intractable epilepsy. Intractable means the seizures are not controlled by medication. The first seizures with Dravet Syndrome usually start before the age of 1. In the second year, other seizures take hold: myoclonus, or involuntary, muscle spasms and status epilepticus, seizures that last more than 30 minutes or come in clusters, one after the other. At that time, the Figis said, Charlotte was still developing normally, talking and walking the same day as her twin. But the seizures continued to get worse. The medications were also taking a toll. She was on seven drugs -- some of them heavy-duty, addictive ones such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines. They'd work for a while, but the seizures always came back with a vengeance. "At 2, she really started to decline cognitively," Paige said. "Whether it was the medicines or the seizures, it was happening, it was obvious. And she was slipping away." When Charlotte was 2½, the Figis decided to take her to Children's Hospital Colorado. A neurologist tested her for the SCN1A gene mutation, which is common in 80% of Dravet Syndrome cases. After two months, the test came back positive. "I remember to this day it was a relief," Paige said. "Even though it was the worst-case scenario, I felt relief just to know." Matt, a Green Beret, decided to leave the military. "Every mission, every training I was going to do I was called home because she was in the pediatric ICU again or in the hospital again." They were quickly running out of options. They considered a drug from France. Doctors suggested an experimental anti-seizure drug being used on dogs. Paige took her daughter to Chicago to see a Dravet specialist, who put the child on a ketogenic diet frequently used to treat epilepsy that's high in fat and low in carbohydrates. The special diet forces the body to make extra ketones, natural chemicals that suppress seizures. It's mainly recommended for epileptic patients who don't respond to treatment. The diet helped control Charlotte's seizures but had a lot of side effects. She suffered from bone loss. Her immune system plummeted. And new behavioral problems started popping up. "At one point she was outside eating pine cones and stuff, all kinds of different things," Matt said. "As a parent you have to say, let's take a step back and look at this. Is this truly beneficial treatment because of these other things?" Two years into the diet, the seizures came back. The end of the rope In November 2000, Colorado voters approved Amendment 20, which required the state to set up a medical marijuana registry program. Pot activists divided over new cannabis club There are eight medical conditions for which patients can use cannabis -- cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, muscle spasms, seizures, severe pain, severe nausea and cachexia or dramatic weight loss and muscle atrophy. The average patient in the program is 42 years old. There are 39 patients under the age of 18. Paige had consistently voted against marijuana use. That was before Dravet Syndrome entered their lives. Matt, now a military contractor spending six months a year overseas, used his spare time scouring the Internet looking for anything that would help his little girl. He found a video online of a California boy whose Dravet was being successfully treated with cannabis. The strain was low in tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the compound in marijuana that's psychoactive. It was also high in cannabidiol, or CBD, which has medicinal properties but no psychoactivity. Scientists think the CBD quiets the excessive electrical and chemical activity in the brain that causes seizures. It had worked in this boy; his parents saw a major reduction in the boy's seizures. By then Charlotte had lost the ability to walk, talk and eat. She was having 300 grand mal seizures a week. Her heart had stopped a number of times. When it happened at home, Paige did cardiopulmonary resuscitation until an ambulance arrived. When it happened in the hospital, where they'd already signed a do-not-resuscitate order, they said their goodbyes. Doctors had even suggested putting Charlotte in a medically induced coma to give her small, battered body a rest. She was 5 when the Figis learned there was nothing more the hospital could do. That's when Paige decided to try medical marijuana. But finding two doctors to sign off on a medical marijuana card for Charlotte was no easy feat. She was the youngest patient in the state ever to apply. Scientists don't fully understand the long-term effects early marijuana use may have on children. Studies that show negative effects, such as diminished lung function or increased risk of a heart attack, are primarily done on adult marijuana smokers. But Charlotte wouldn't be smoking the stuff. Childhood is also a delicate time in brain development. Preliminary research shows that early onset marijuana smokers are slower at tasks, have lower IQs later in life, have a higher risk of stroke and increased incidence of psychotic disorders, leaving some scientists concerned. Is medical marijuana safe for children? "Everyone said no, no, no, no, no, and I kept calling and calling," Paige said. She finally reached Dr. Margaret Gedde, who agree to meet with the family. "(Charlotte's) been close to death so many times, she's had so much brain damage from seizure activity and likely the pharmaceutical medication," Gedde said. "When you put the potential risks of the cannabis in context like that, it's a very easy decision." The second doctor to sign on was Alan Shackelford, a Harvard-trained physician who had a number of medical marijuana patients in his care. He wasn't familiar with Dravet and because of Charlotte's age had serious reservations. "(But) they had exhausted all of her treatment options," Shackelford said. "There really weren't any steps they could take beyond what they had done. Everything had been tried -- except cannabis." Paige found a Denver dispensary that had a small amount of a type of marijuana called R4, said to be low in THC and high in CBD. She paid about$800 for 2 ounces -- all that was available -- and had a friend extract the oil.

She had the oil tested at a lab and started Charlotte out on a small dose.

"We were pioneering the whole thing; we were guinea pigging Charlotte," Paige said. "This is a federally illegal substance. I was terrified to be honest with you."

But the results were stunning.

"When she didn't have those three, four seizures that first hour, that was the first sign," Paige recalled. "And I thought well, 'Let's go another hour, this has got to be a fluke.' "

The seizures stopped for another hour. And for the following seven days.

Paige said she couldn't believe it. Neither could Matt. But their supply was running out.

Charlotte's Web

Paige soon heard about the Stanley brothers, one of the state's largest marijuana growers and dispensary owners. These six brothers were crossbreeding a strain of marijuana also high in CBD and low in THC, but they didn't know what to do with it. No one wanted it; they couldn't sell it.

Still, even they had reservations when they heard about Charlotte's age. But once they met her, they were on board.

"The biggest misconception about treating a child like little Charlotte is most people think that we're getting her high, most people think she's getting stoned," Josh Stanley said, stressing his plant's low THC levels. "Charlotte is the most precious little girl in the world to me. I will do anything for her."

The brothers started the Realm of Caring Foundation, a nonprofit organization that provides cannabis to adults and children suffering from a host of diseases, including epilepsy, cancer, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's, who cannot afford this treatment.

People have called them the Robin Hoods of marijuana. Josh Stanley said it's their calling. They use the money they make from medical marijuana patients and get donations from sponsors who believe in their cause. They only ask patients such as the Figis to donate what they can.

"We give (cannabis) away for next to free," Stanley said. "The state won't allow us to actually give it away, so we give it away for pennies really."

Charlotte gets a dose of the cannabis oil twice a day in her food.

Gedde found three to four milligrams of oil per pound of the girl's body weight stopped the seizures.

Today, Charlotte, 6, is thriving. Her seizures only happen two to three times per month, almost solely in her sleep. Not only is she walking, she can ride her bicycle. She feeds herself and is talking more and more each day.

"I literally see Charlotte's brain making connections that haven't been made in years," Matt said. "My thought now is, why were we the ones that had to go out and find this cure? This natural cure? How come a doctor didn't know about this? How come they didn't make me aware of this?"

The marijuana strain Charlotte and now 41 other patients use to ease painful symptoms of diseases such as epilepsy and cancer has been named after the little girl who is getting her life back one day at a time.

It's called Charlotte's Web.

"I didn't hear her laugh for six months," Paige said. "I didn't hear her voice at all, just her crying. I can't imagine that I would be watching her making these gains that she's making, doing the things that she's doing (without the medical marijuana). I don't take it for granted. Every day is a blessing."

Matt added, "I want to scream it from the rooftops. I want other people, other parents, to know that this is a viable option."

Readers debate future of pot laws

http://www.cnn.com/2013/08/07/health/charlotte-child-medical-marijuana/

#### Resource: Spiritual & Ritual Use of Psychoactives

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 1:45 PM comments (0)

Spiritual & Ritual

Use of Psychoactives

GENERAL INFORMATION #

Modern Entheogen Ethics

Journal Articles on the Spiritual Use of Entheogens

Books on the Spiritual Use of Entheogens

Xochipilli, the Aztec Prince of Flowers

RELATED VAULTS #

Religious Freedom

Ethnobotany & Ethnopharmacology Vault

Medicinal Use of Psychoactives

Recreational Use of Psychoactives

Entheogen Vaults

ARTICLES & WRITINGS #

The Psychedelics and Religion, by Walter Houston Clark

Notes on the Present Status of Ololiuhqui and other Hallucinogens of Mexico - R. Gordon Wasson, 1968

Wasson's Alternative Candidates for Soma, by Thomas J Riedlinger

RESEARCH & JOURNAL ARTICLES #

Related Journal References

Do Drugs have Religious Import?, by Huston Smith

The Psychedelic Mystical Experience in the Human Encounter With Death, by Walter Pahnke

Drugs and Mysticism, by Walter Pahnke

Psychedelics and Religious Experience, by Alan Watts

MEDIA COVERAGE #

Seeking Higher Ground- San Jose Mercury News, Jan 31, 1998

AYAHUASCA #

The Use of Psychoactive Plants Among the Hupda-Maku

The Sound of Rushing Water, by Michael J. Harner

Ayahuasca Healing Sessions, by Marlene Dobkin de Rios

Ayahuasca and its Mechanism of Healing, by Marlene Dobkin de Rios

Santo Daime Ceremony recording (RealAudio)

CANNABIS #

Basic Rastafarian Info

Excerpts from The Rastafarian

Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church - 60 Minutes 1979

Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church - Miami Herald

The Hachish-Vice in the Old Testament

Marijuana and the Bible

Resurrection of the Higher Self, by Matthew Webb

DMT #

DMT Snuffs - Cohoba, Yopo and Vilva, by Jonathon Ott

MUSHROOMS #

Little Flowers of the Gods, by Shultes and Hofmann

PEYOTE & CACTI #

Shamanism and Peyote Use Among the Apaches, from Hallucinogens and Shamanism

A Psychedelic Catalyst for Healing

SALVIA DIVINORUM #

A New Mexican Psychotropic Drug from the Mint Family, by R. Gordon Wasson

Ethnopharmacology of Ska Maria Pastora, by Valdes, Diaz and Paul

OFF-SITE RESOURCES

PRIMARY RESOURCES #

Council on Spiritual Practices - Entheogens

The Spiritual Use of Psychoactives

New World Entheogens

What is Soma?

Lila.info : Transpersonal Explorations of Shamanic Ritual

AYAHUASCA - União do Vegetal #

União do Vegetal Home Page

União do Vegetal - Nicholas Saunders

AYAHUASCA - Santo Daime #

Santo Daime - The Brazilian Rainforest's Spiritual Path

The Use of Ayahuasca by the Santo Daime Religion

A Description of a Santo Daime Service

A Personal Experience at a Daime Service

Santo Daime - Nicholas Saunders

MUSHROOMS #

Traditional use of psychoactive mushrooms in Ivory Coast? , by Georgio Samorini

Mushrooms and Magic: The Mycotheology Homepage

PEYOTE & CACTI #

Peyote Way Church of God

#### Resource: Cocaine History and Harmful Chemical Additives

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 1:40 PM comments (0)

Levamisole Update: Jan 2014: Researchers show that in invertebrates levamisole appears to synergize with cocaine, increasing effects. This could provide an explanation for why so much of the cocaine is contaminated with levamisole.

Warning: Since 2009, cocaine cut with levamisole (a veterinary and human dewormer) has been increasingly reported and has resulted in numerous hospitalizations and a few deaths across the United States. The DEA reports that as much as 1/3 of all cocaine in the U.S. is tainted.

GENERAL INFORMATION #

Cocaine & Drug Tests

Basic Crack / Freebase Info

Amphetamines, Cocaine, A New Link

Some Random Cocaine Info

Cocaine Bits & Pieces

Cocaine Use Statistics

Cocaine and Drug Tests

RELATED VAULTS #

Coca Vault

HISTORY #

Cocaine Timeline

LAW #

U.S. v Armstrong (sentencing disparity)

FIELD TESTING KITS #

Test Clear : Field Drug ID Kits

ASK EROWID ANSWERS #

How long after use can Cocaine be detected by a urine tes...

Will rats really keep taking cocaine til they die?

What is the blue-color change test used to detect cocaine ...

Could cocaine be used to stabilize a difficult LSD experie...

What is the LD-50 of cocaine?

» » » MORE » » »

ARTICLES & WRITINGS #

Cocaine Adulterated with Levamisole on the Rise: Status in Sep 2009, by Erowid Crew

Rats Prefer Sweetened Water to Cocaine, by Erowid

Cocaine Tainted Cash Faulted as Evidence, 1993

You're Carrying Cocaine in your Wallet

For Those About to Rock, by Rem

Woe to you my Princess, when I come, I will kiss you quite red

and feed you till you are plump. And if you are froward, you

shall see who is the stronger, a gentle little girl who doesn't

eat enough or a big wild man who has cocaine in his body."

-- Sigmund Freud, Cocaine Papers

RESEARCH & JOURNAL ARTICLES #

Related Journal References

Levamisole as a contaminant of illicit Cocaine, 2008

Cocaine on cash not proof of drug dealing, courts rule, 1993

Courts reject drug-tainted evidence, 1993

Cocaine pharmacokinetics in humans, 1981

» » » MORE » » »

CRACK BABIES #

Abstracts on Crack Babies

Fetal 'Crack' Exposure Effects Questioned - Reuters

"Crack Babies" Not Doomed

Prenatal Cocaine: Effects on the Fetus

'Crack Babies' Catch Up - Associated Press, Dec 1992

Placenta Barrier to Cocaine

Crack Baby References

MEDIA COVERAGE #

Index of Cocaine Related Media Articles

Acupuncture effective treatment for cocaine addiction - AP, August 2000

Behind Cocaine's Durability: Low Costs and High Profits - NY Times, Mar 1997

Immunotherapy for Cocaine Addiction - Scientific American, Feb 1997

Proof of Brain Damage Caused by Cocaine (EEG Studies) - Newswire, Oct 1996

Tougher crack laws aren't working - Mpls Star Tribune, 11/20/96

Cocaine-Tainted Cash Faulted as Evidence - Wall Street Journal

EXPERIENCES #

Riding that train, by Murple

Stayed with Me After the High, by 10psi-boost

Confessions of a Cocaine Connoisseur, by Mojo

Bam Bam Yowch, by Mr. Badger

Control, by N

» » » MORE » » »

BOOKS #

A Brief History of Cocaine, by Steven B. Karch

The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs: Cocaine, by C. Johanson

Cocaine, by L. Grinspoon and J. Bakalar

Cocaine Papers, by Sigmund Freud

The Pleasures of Cocaine, by Adam Gottlieb

» » » MORE » » »

OFF-SITE RESOURCES

PRIMARY RESOURCES #

Paranoia : Cocaine

Lycaeum : Cocaine

SECONDARY RESOURCES #

Schaffer Library of Drug Policy : Cocaine

Drug Library : Cocaine Info

Cocaine Story in Colombia

HedWeb : Cocaine

StreetDrugs.org : Crack Cocaine

The Haight-Ashbury Cocaine Film

LAW #

Federal Sentencing Guidelines

Families Against Mandatory Minimums

The History of Legislative Control over Opium, Cocaine, and their Derivatives

November Coalition: Crack vs. Cocaine

ARTICLES & WRITINGS #

Craving Cocaddiction or Craven Cocabhorrence (2001)

Consumer Union Report on Cocaine

On Cocaine, by Sigmund Freud

RESEARCH & JOURNAL ARTICLES #

Birth of a Cocaine Factoid (2009)

Effects of Crack smoking on the lungs (Abstracts)

The Pharmacology of Cocaine Smoking in Humans

Urban Legends : Cocaine Tainted Money

GOVERNMENT RESOURCES #

Cocaine: Wholesale, Purity and Street Prices

World Health Organization Global Cocaine Project Report - 1995

MEDIA COVERAGE #

How the Myth of the 'Negro Cocaine FiendÃ¢' Helped Shape American Drug Policy - The Nation.com, Jan 29 2014

"Drugs Arenâ€™t the Problem": Neuroscientist Carl Hart on Brain Science & Myths About Addiction - DemocracyNow, Jan 6 2014

Will a Cocaine Vaccine Keep Addicts from Using? - The Fix , Jan 3 2014

Can a drug cure an addict? - thestar.com, Dec 22 2007

Houston scientists see hope in cocaine vaccine - Houston Chronicle, Jan 1 2008

Supreme Court upholds sentencing discretion in crack case - NYT, Dec 10 2007

New Mint Resembles Cocaine Bags, Police Say - MSNBC, Dec 2 2007

'Gene cause' of cocaine addiction - BBCNews, Mar 13 2006

Rivers of Coke - WIREDNews, Aug 2005

Warning on Atropine-laced Cocaine - Expatica Netherlands, Dec 2004

MAPInc : Cocaine News

CRACK BABIES #

'Crack baby' study ends with unexpected but clear result - July 22 2013, Philly.com

PACO #

Lost in an Abyss of Drugs, and Entangled by Poverty - NYTimes July 29, 2009

Paco: Drug Epidemic Sweeping the Streets of Argentina - The ArgenTimes, Nov 2008

PREGNANCY #

Prenatal cocaine's lasting cellular effects - (Press Zoom), Jan 15, 2007

In Utero Exposure to Cocaine : A Review

Women & Pregnancy (primarily cocaine-related)

ADDICTION & TREATMENT #

Addiction injection: the mission to immunise drug users against dependency, Wired, Mar 29 2013

Ethical Issues in Using a Cocaine Vaccine (Abstract)

Gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) May Reduce Cocaine Cravings, 2003

"No" in a Needle : Cocaine Vaccine, 2003

N-Acetyl Cysteine May Reduce Cocaine Cravings?, 2002

Identifying Compounds to Treat Cocaine Addiction, 1996

Cocaine Anonymous

MDMA to Break Addiction

PROHIBITION SITES #

Teen Challenge : Cocaine

DEA : Cocaine

Partnership for a Drug Free America : Cocaine

National Families in Action : Cocaine

CHEMISTRY & PHARMACOLOGY #

Hyperreal on Synthesis

CONTAMINANTS & ADULTERANTS #

Skin, Vessel Damage Seen with Tainted Cocaine - Mar 6, 2013, MedPageToday

How to make your very own Levamisole test kits! - Levamicoke (blog), Nov 19 2010

The Mystery of the Tainted Cocaine - The Stranger, Aug 17 - Nov 9 2010

Agranulocytosis Associated with Cocaine Use --- Four States, March 2008--November 2009 - CDC.gov

New York Health Advisory on Contaminated Cocaine - New York Oasis, Feb 2009

Levamisole: An unusual finding in a cocaine related fatality - LA Coroner, Dec 2005

#### Resources: Ayahuasca

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 1:30 PM comments (0)

July 2010 - UDV reaches an agreement with the DEA allowing their churches to import (and use) DMT-containing ayahuasca tea into the United States. See Agreement on Procedures for Handling UDV Sacrament.

GENERAL INFORMATION #

Ayahuasca Names & Terminology

Psychedelic Shamanism: Ayahuasca Description

DMT Freebase Content in Huasca Preparations, Clearlight (2003)

Tryptamine Carriers (1994)

NATURAL SOURCES #

Banisteriopsis caapi - most common

Psychotria viridis - most common

Anadenanathera spp.

Brugmansia spp.

Datura spp.

Mimosa hostilis

Virola spp.

RELATED VAULTS #

DMT Vault

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Vault

5-MeO-DMT Vault

Harmala Vault

Shamanism Vault

HEALTH #

Ayahuasca Fatalities

HISTORY #

Ayahuasca Timeline

TRADITIONAL USE #

The Use of Psychoactive Plants Among the Hupda-Maku

The Sound of Rushing Water, by Michael J. Harner

Ayahuasca Healing Session, by Marlene Dobkin de Rios

Ayahuasca and its Mechanism of Healing, by Marlene Dobkin de Rios

Floral Baths, by Ross Heaven and Artidoro

RITUAL & SPIRITUAL USE #

Short Glossary of the Terms Used in the União do Vegetal, by Labate et al.

1960s Media Coverage of Ayahuasca and the UDV, by Labate et al.

Ayahuasca Use in a Religious Context, an excerpt by Anthony R. Henman

Santo Daime, by Winstead & Miller

Santo Daime, an excerpt by Charlie K.

SANTO DAIME CEREMONY RECORDINGS #

Dai-Me Amor (Give me love), an early hymn of Santo Daime founder Mestre Irineu (RealAudio-310k)

This is a hymn of Glauco's, dedicated to the city of Sao Paulo. (RealAudio-367k)

Marizia : Hymn 37 of founder Mestre Irineu (RealAudio-251k)

Centro Livre : Hymn 39 of Mestre Irineu (RealAudio-158k)

A Virgem Mae Me Ensinou : Hymn 44 (RealAudio-469k)

LAW #

Legal, Ethical, and Political Dimensions of Ayahuasca Consumption in Brazil - Beatriz Labate Jun2014

Legislative Hearings Discuss Attempt to Ban the Use of Ayahuasca in Brazil - Dec 9, 2010

UDV Ayahuasca Legal Case

ASK EROWID ANSWERS #

Is Banisteriopsis caapi illegal to import?

Would chewing phalaris grass seeds cause an effect?

What is the DMT content of Mimosa hostilis rootbark?

Is Mimosa hostilis orally active without an MAOI?

Do you have any information about a plant called somethin...

» » » MORE » » »

ARTICLES & WRITINGS #

Cura, cura, cuerpecito [Heal, heal, little body], by B. Labate & J. C. Bouso Jun

Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs, by K. Trout

Plant Medicines and Shamanic Healing, by Ross Heaven

1957-2010: A Tribute to Glauco Vilas Boas

The Ayahuasca-Alien Connection

Allen Ginsberg Seeking Yage

Vine of the Souls, by Charlie Kidder

The Ritual Use of Plants of Power (Intro and Chapter Summaries)

RESEARCH & JOURNAL ARTICLES #

Related Journal References

Pharmahuasca, Anahuasca and Vinho da Jurema, by Jonathan Ott

Sociopsychotherapeutic functions of ayahuasca healing in Amazonia

References Database : Ayahuasca

» » » MORE » » »

PREPARATION & RECIPES #

Ayahuasca Recipes, by Christian Rätsch

Ayahuasca Analogs and Pharmahuasca, by Christian Rätsch

Ayahuasca Forum: Preparation of B. caapi & M. hostilis (2006)

Ayahuasca Preparations and Recipes, by Keeper of the Trout

Resonance Project: Ayahuasca Cookbook (1997/98)

alt.drugs: Ayahuasca Preparation (1994)

EXPERIENCES #

(Teddy) Bear Totem, by Samanthe

Faceless in the Dark, by Matthew Black

Every Second is a Galaxy, by Sherlockalien

Deep Healing on the Hurl-and-Whirl, by The Doctor

Long-Lasting Trauma, by Jhi-dou

» » » MORE » » »

BOOKS #

The Antipodes of the Mind, by Benny Shanon

Ayahuasca Analogues, by Jonathan Ott

Ayahuasca Visions, by Luis Eduardo Luna & Pablo Amaringo

Ayahuasca and Ayahuasca Alkaloids, by K. Trout [online]

Forest of Visions, by Alex Polari de Alverga

Where the Gods Reign, by Richard Evans Schultes

Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice, by Mark Plotkin

O Uso Ritual da Ayahuasca, by B. Labate and W. Araújo (Eds.)

Ethnopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs, by D.H. Efron (ed.) (PDF)

» » » MORE » » »

OFF-SITE RESOURCES

PRIMARY RESOURCES #

Iceers: Ayahuasca

Ayahuasca.com

Spirit Quest : Ayahuasca

SECONDARY RESOURCES #

Ayahuasca-related Texts on Bia Labate's Site

Bibliography of the Brazilian Ayahuasca Religions (PDF)

Ayahuasca, DMT, and other related Tryptamines

Yatra's Ayahuasca Site

Deoxy : Ayahuasca

The Ibogaine Dossier : Ayahuasca

My First Ayahuasca Experiences, by Nicholas Saunders

7 Levels : Yage

Disembodied Eyes : Yage

SPIRITUAL USE #

--União do Vegetal-- #

União do Vegetal Home Page

União do Vegetal: Nicholas Saunders' Account

--Santo Daime-- #

Santo Daime - The Brazilian Rainforest's Spiritual Path

The Use of Ayahuasca by the Santo Daime Religion

Guided by the Moon, by Edward MacRae

A Personal Experience at a Daime Service

Santo Daime: Nicholas Saunders' Account

--Other-- #

Shamanistic Ayahuasca Ritual

Deoxy : Shamanism

Ayahuasca Healing Session

LAW #

The Ayahuasca Patent Case, CIEL

The Ayahausca Patent Revocation: Raising Questions about U.S. Patent Policy, Boston College

1996 Ayahuasca Patent

RESEARCH & JOURNAL ARTICLES #

Ayahuasca Issue - MAPS, Autumn 1998

A cognitive-psychological study of ayahuasca - MAPS, Summer 1997

Ayahuasca Pharmacokinetics Study - MAPS, Summer 1995

VIDEO & DOCUMENTARY #

Making Ayahuasca, by Chris Kilham

Eye of the Needle - An Ayahuasca Journey, by Daniel LeMunyan

MEDIA COVERAGE #

Why do people take ayahuasca?, BBC, 29 Apr 2014

Who is authorized to be a Shaman in Colombia? Reflections after Deaths in a Hybrid Ayahuasca Ceremony, Bialabate.net, Aug 2011

Children of a Higher God, Wilamette Weekly, Mar 2, 2011

Psychedelic Tea Brews Unease, WSJ, Sep 16 2009

Psychedelic tea-sipping Oregon sect sues Uncle Sam - Portland Tribune, Sep 12, 2008

Santo Daime: the drug-fuelled religion - Times Online (Women's Section), Apr 7, 2008

Jungle fever - Times Online (Women's Section), Sep 9, 2007

Peru: Hell and Back - National Geographic Adventure

Tripping on Tea - Sollum - May 2005

Peru seeks tribal cure for addiction - BBC, Nov 5 2003

Shaman Bared [sic] From Using Ayahuasca Following Woman's Death - National Post (achived by CCE), Apr 26 2008

The Pale Cast of Thought - Leveritt T, Harpers, Oct 2014

NON-ENGLISH RESOURCES #

Xamanismo e ciência, Trópico, Aug 2009 (Portuguese)

Books on Ayahuasca, Edited by B. Labate et al. (Portuguese)

Zakatechichi: Bouquin sur l'Ayahuasca

L'ayahuasca, le chamane et les initiés, Le Monde, Jul 2008 (Français)

#### Naturals

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 1:20 PM comments (0)

Erowid Note: This FAQ was not authored by Erowid. It may include out-of-date and/or incorrect information. Please check the version date to see when it was most recently revised. It appears on Erowid as part of our historical archives. For current information, see Erowid's summary pages in the substance's main vault.

INDEX

Disclaimer

Introduction

MAO Inhibitors

Hallucinogenic Mushrooms

Mescaline (cacti)

Opium

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose Seeds

Morning Glory Seeds

Native South American Intoxicants

Nutmeg

Yohimbe

Datura

Authors :

Ecni Nisava,

Paul A. Houle,

Adam Boggs,

Petrus Pennanen

Editors:

[email protected]

HTML and Layout:

© Erowid

Last Update: 2/2/93

DISCLAIMER

The information presented herein is for ENTERTAINMENT PURPOSES ONLY and can be found in ethnobotanical literature. Most (if not all) of the substances listed in this faq are illegal to ingest and/or possess. The authors and editors assume no responsibility should the information presented here be used, misused, misunderstood, inaccurate or even read. Reading this faq constitutes an agreement to these terms. If you are afraid you might be tempted to use any of the substances mentioned here in illegal ways when presented with the knowledge to do so, STOP READING NOW.

Many of the botanicals listed here are highly toxic and deadly. Always keep them away from children.

This faq may be reproduced verbatim, in whole or in part, by any means, and distributed freely by whatever means available, provided no charge is made for the copy and this disclaimer is included.

INTRODUCTION

The following information was taken without permission from the book _Legal Highs_ by Adam Gottlieb, 1973, Twentieth Century Alchemist, from _The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens_ by Schultes & Hofmann, 2nd Ed. 1980, from _The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms_ by Gary H. Lincoff and Carol Nehring, 1981, Random House, from _Narcotic Plants: Revised and Enlarged_ by William Emboden, 1979, MacMillan Publishing, from various mail-order greenhouse literature, from personal experiences of many people (friends of friends, and fictional characters that exist only in the authors' and editors' imaginations) and (mostly) from alt.drugs. Some sections contain a "References" section if the author of that section felt like going to the trouble; some mention references on the fly in the text, and some are just unreferenced. Some personal correspondance is included too; in this case if I could get the author's consent I included his name/email address; if I could not track down the author, I included the mail anonymously. If the author of a particular piece of mail doesn't want it included, I won't include it (although I may paraphrase it without attribution).

I left minimal header information in the stuff that was pulled from the net to give credit where due and to provide follow-up paths (do so at your own risk). I didn't have the time (let alone motivation) to mail everyone whose comments are included here to see if it was alright to include them, but if the info was posted to the net once, I can't see a problem with putting it in a faq. A later version might have more eloquent and concise attributions.

Much of the net stuff was edited extensively in that irrelevant info was deleted from specific posts; however, the context and spirit of the remaining information was preserved.

The substances listed here are arranged in a fairly straightforward format. If a certain section is missing from a certain substance, it means that I had no information to put in that section or it didn't apply. The substances are ordered alphebetically, sorted according to Botanical Family name, then Genus name, then (if necessary) Species name. This was a completely fascist decision on my part, and I did it only because it was the easiest ordering to maintain. Note that the name given in the heading is a common name and has NOTHING to do with the way the list is ordered.

At the moment I haven't got time to organize this stuff anymore than it already is (and that's not much). Hopefully in the future I will find time to organize and index it, and to expand it to include dozens of other natural highs. Until then, this mess will have to do.

Spelling errors are numerous and rampant, and I take no responsibility for any of them even tho many of them are undoubtedly mine.

A WORD ABOUT MAO INHIBITORS

[Erowid Note: The section of the FAQ on MAO Inhibitors contains some inaccuracies. For more complete information about MAOIs, read Erowid's MAOI Vault and seek other sources.]

Some of the substances described in this file are MAO inhibitors; this information is provided under the "Interaction precautions" section for the substance in question.

MAO stands for MonoAmine Oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain amines and renders them ineffective. MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) are substances that interfere with the action of monoamine oxidase, leaving the amines intact. Inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase can produce a variety of effects, some of which are dangerous.

It may be dangerous to combine different MAOIs with each other or to combine them with other chemicals such as strong stimulants (amphetamine, MDMA), SSRIs (Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Celexa, Desyrel, etc), and many other pharmaceuticals. If you are taking a prescription drug that is an MAOI, avoid using contraindicated drugs or substances.

There are also a number of common foods and beverages which contain amines that are normally broken down by MAO. If you are taking a prescription MAOI, consult your physician to see whether you should avoid any of these. Substances that may interact with certain MAOIs include:

sedatives

tranquilizers

antihistamines

alcohol

amphetamines (even diet pills)

mescaline

asarone

nutmeg

macromerine

ephedrine

dill oil

parsley oil

wild fennel oil

cocoa

coffee (or any substance that contains large amounts of caffeine)

aged cheeses

any tyrosine-containing food

any other MAO inhibitor

THIS LIST IS BY NO MEANS COMPLETE OR ALL-INCLUSIVE. COMBINE DRUGS AT YOUR OWN RISK !

HALLUCINOGENIC MUSHROOMS

Family:

Agaricaceae

Genus:

Psilocybe

Species:

baeocystis (Potent Psilocybe)

caerulipes (Blue Foot Psilocybe)

coprophila (Dung-loving Psilocybe)

cubensis (Common Large Psilocybe)

cyanescens (Bluing Psilocybe)

pelliculosa (Conifer Psilocybe)

semilanceata (Liberty Cap)

stunzii (Stunz's Blue Legs)

Amanita Muscaria (Fly Agaric), Conocybe smithii (Bog Conocybe) and Gymopilus spectabilis (Big Laughing Gym) are among the other mushroom species known to be hallucinogenic. However, Fly Agarics are classified as poisonous, and, according to _The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms_, the Fly Agarics that grow in North America cause "dilerium, raving, and profuse sweating", unlike their hallucinogenic Siberian counterparts. (Perhaps WOSD propaganda, I realize, but worth considering, at least for those of you who don't normally rave...)

WARNING:

mushrooms should NEVER be ingested unless positively identified to be non-poisonous by a mycologist. Often the only differences between highly toxic mushrooms and edible mushrooms are extremely subtle and require a great deal of training to distinguish. Also, several hallucinogenic varieties have been shown to be toxic to humans in medium to large doses.

Usage:

Like most natural plant products, psychedelic mushrooms vary considerably in strength due to genetics, growth medium, and other factors. An effective dose of dried psychedelic mushrooms is on the order of 1 gram. This would be on the order of one or two whole mushrooms (best bet is to weigh them and make sure). Because strength varies widely, you should ask other people who have had mushrooms from the same source about the relative strength. For mushrooms from an unknown source, .5 grams of dried mushrooms is probably a decent place to start.

'Shrooms are best taken on an empty stomach. Carlos Castenada describes the effects of a mushroom-based preparation when smoked, and anyone who has taken 'Shrooms would agree that the effects that he describes are much more intense than the effects of reasonable dosages taken orally. Although many people think that Carlos made the whole thing up, it is possible that mushrooms are smokable and that smoked mushrooms might produce a different experience than ingested, because 'Shrooms contain many compounds known as tryptamines (as in dimethyl- tryptamine (DMT)) which are also psychoactive when smoked but not active orally. Other than Carlos, I've never heard of anyone else smoking mushrooms or mushroom products, so I can't vouch for the effects.

If you don't like the taste of 'Shrooms, it is also possible to consume a tea made by boiling mushroom fragments in water. The idea here is to sprinkle dried mushroom fragments on water and boil them until they sink, and then filter out the actual 'Shrooms and enjoy the tea.

Effects:

The effects of psychedelic mushrooms are comparable to those of LSD, but different in a number of ways. For one thing, the trip lasts aproximately 6 hours, about half of what an LSD trip does. Mushrooms also have less stimulant effect than LSD. Mushrooms tend to be more visual than LSD and less auditory. LSD is probably better for enhancing perception of music, although psilocybin does alter the perception of sound (seems to make background noise louder) and like tryptamine- based psychedelics, also tends to induce auditory hallucinations that sound like 'noise'.

'Shrooms do have definite physical effects that are both similar and different to those of LSD. Shrooms tend to cause 'Liquid Breathing', especially before the onset of psychedelic effects. (Like LSD) Shrooms don't cause stomach cramps, but they do seem to cause a headache sometimes.

A short term cross tolerance does develop between pscilocybin, mescaline, and LSD, but there appears to be no long term tolerance, except for learned behavior which allows one, for instance, to learn how to talk somewhat coherently despite what psychedelics do to the language centers and short term memory.

Another important difference between 'shrooms and LSD is that the onset time of effects from ingestion is MUCH shorter. In the experience of people that I know, the onset of effects is aproximately 30-45 minutes after ingestion, and the transition from physical effects to mild depersonalization to intense hallucination is very short, even in the subjective time of the tripper. There is a period of aproximately one hour where psychedelic effects (visual/auditory hallucination, flickering of visual field, time overlay effect, time distortion, breakdown of linguistic centers, etc.) are VERY intense, and the rest of the trip seems to be more psychological, that is, very little hallucination, mostly depersonalization and time distorsion. This is a very excellent time to spend in a natural environment (your local woods, desert, or savanna) because it tends to produce shamanistic, in touch with nature feelings much better than LSD does.

Bad trips are very possible with mushrooms, and are probably very similar to bad trips on acid. If you know or suspect that a tripper is experiencing eyes-open visual hallucinations, you might want to take them to a place where no there are no regular geometric patterns that cover most of the visual field. High dosages of mushrooms seem to affect perception of regular tiled surfaces much more so than irregular surfaces. If possible, suggest to the tripper that you go to a place where there is a featureless floor (say a drab carpet or a concrete floor). It's also good to find a warm place, but always heed to the will of the tripper so long as he doesn't want to do anything stupid like jump off a cliff. See if you can find some mellow music that is pleasing to the tripper (Say, the Grateful Dead or Spyro Gyra) and remember that little things like turning the intensity of light up or down can have a big emotional effect. Be sure to ask about these things.

When talking to someone on a bad trip, it often helps to keep changing his train of thought; many people find that this keeps the anxiety at a lower level. The primary rule is to watch the reaction of the tripper to what you do, and take his needs and fears into consideration. Keep him with people that he trusts and try to remove any people that he doesn't trust. Of course, this advice is valid for hallucinogens in general.

History:

The practice of growing mushrooms dates back to around 100 B.C., and is based partly upon the discovery of minature mushroom stones found near Gautemala City. Other finds further north also indicate an extensive mushroom cult in the early civilizations. When Cortez arrived in Central America, he found the natives using mushrooms as a sacrament. They called them "teonanacatl", or "God's Flesh." The Spainards reacted strongly to the mushrooms, giving written accounts of the loathsome mushroom rituals that "provoke lust... cause not death, but madness... and bring before the eyes wars and the likeness of demons." Teonanacatl was then banned from the church as contributing to pagan behavior and idolitry. The only tribe definately known to have consumed the mushrooms, however, is the Chichimecas. Six tribes consume mushrooms today in Oaxaca: Mazatecs, Chinantecs, Chatinos, Zapotecs, Mixtecs, and Mijes. It has recently been suggested that mushroom use by the Chol and Lacandon Maya may be a vestage from the earlier Mayans that disappeared for a time, and then was readopted. Present day ritual among them Mazatec includes many rituals from the Catholic Church. Even though the Catholics tried to eliminate the detested fungi, the Indians still chant saints of the church and incorporate litanies, which are undoubtedly post-Christian elements of their ritual.

Interaction precautions:

I wouldn't recomend using them with alcohol or other depressants. Also, people who are being medicated for a psychological conditions, particularly with MAO-inhibitor class drugs probably DON'T want to use 'Shrooms or any psychedelic because MAO-inhibitors tend to interact seriously with most psychoactive compounds.

Active Ingredients:

The primary active components of 'Shrooms are psilocybin and psilocin, which also is an immediate metabolite of psilocybin. There are a whole family of other tryptamine-related substances in 'Shrooms but most of them are not active when eaten.

For further reading:

Several books are available on the subject of growing mushrooms, which is a rather complex task because it involves maintaining a sterile environment and quite a bit of biology lab skills. The best book on the subject is "Psilocybin: The magic mushroom grower's guide" by Oss and Oeric from And/Or press. Spores are available by mail order; check High Times magazine. These are legal to sell because they contain no psychoactive compounds. Spores can also be obtained by taking a cap print from mushrooms that you obtain from another source, like the wild.

========================================

[some interesting info on Fly Agarics follows. Note that these are much more poisonous than psilocybe varieties, the info above does not necessarily apply to them, and the info below does not necessarily apply to psilocybes. --ED]

~From: [email protected] (David A. Honig)

~Subject: Re: mail order botanicals

~Date: 11 Nov 91 22:00:34 GMT

Organization: UC Irvine Department of ICS

In article <[email protected]>

[email protected] (Eli Brandt) writes:

>>anyone know the legality of fly agaric? anyone have any experience with

>>it?

>

>I'm sure it's legal. _Merck's_ sez that neither ibotenic acid and muscarine

>were "controlled substances" (what a *dumb* term) as of '76; was there maybe

>a "Toadstool Regulation Act" I missed? Anyway, you could call it "soma" and

>have a real good case for religious use...

>

>I don't know what the dose would be. The LD-50 iv in mice for muscarine is

>0.23 mg/kg; ibotenic acid is (for mice/rats) 15/42 iv and 38/129 oral. I'd

>be careful with anything with such a wide difference in toxicity between

>fairly similar species. I vaguely recall that muscarine is only found in

>the younger shrooms; it looks like you'd want to avoid them, unless it's

>also responsible for most of the interesting effects.

>

>>ecni

>

> Eli [email protected]

I obtained some dried Amanita via an unnamed source. They make you puke

(what else is new) and go into a dreamy state. Not "psychedelic" or

terribly euphoric. A friend (who is a botanist) has tried fresh ones,

reports that they're better.

IMHO, they're not worth your time unless your into ethnopsychopharmacology.

--

David A. Honig

MESCALINE-BEARING CACTI

Family:

Cactaceae

Genus:

Gymnocalycium

Species:

gibbosum: Native to Argentina

leeanum: Native to Argentina, Uruquay

Genus:

Islaya

Species:

minor: Native to South Peru

Genus:

Lophophora

Species:

diffusa (Peyote): Native to Mexico

williamsii (Peyote, Mescal,Chaute etc.): the classic Peyote, grows in north central Mexico and south Texas.

Genus:

Opuntia

Species:

imbricata: Native to S-W USA to Central Mexico.

spinosior: Native to Arizona, New Mexico, Northern Mexico.

Genus:

Pelecyphora

Species:

aselliformis (Peyotillo, Peyote meco): Native to San Luis Potosi, Mexico

Genus:

Pereskia

Species:

corrugata

tampicana: Native to Tampico, Mexico.

Genus:

Pereskiopsis

Species:

scandens: Native to Yucatan, Mexico.

Genus:

Stetsonia

Species:

coryne: Native to Northwestern Argentina.

Genus:

Trichocereus

Species:

cuzcoensis: Native to Cuzco, Peru.

fulvianus: Native to Chile.

macrogonus: Native to South America.

pachanoi (San Pedro, Giganton): Native to Peru, Equador.

peruvianus (Peruvian Fence Post): Native to Peru.

scopulicola

taquimbalensis: Native to Bolivia.

terscheckii (Cardon grande): Native to Northwestern Argentina.

validus: Native to Bolivia.

werdermannianus: Native to Tupiza & Charcoma, Bolivia.

Description:

Trichocerei are columnar, branched or candelabra like cacti, which usually grow very fast. Cereus is a different genus, whose members haven't been found to contain mescaline.

Cultivation:

(from seed) Sow the seeds an inch apart on the surface of sterilized, moist, sifted cactus mix. The pH should be 4.5-6.5. Cover the tray or pot with an airtight plastic bag. Place in bright but indirect light for 12 hours a day at less than 30 degrees centigrade. Don't let the temperature get too high, and check to make sure the soil surface is moist, but not too wet. A fungicide may be needed.

Cactus seeds will generally germinate in 1-3 weeks. When the seedlings are about 2 cm tall (60-90 days for fast-growing species) transplant them to individual pots. Handle them very cautiously and use moist soil with pH 4.5-6.5 in the new pot. A good soil mix is 1/3 normal flower soil, 1/3 peat and 1/3 coarse sand or gravel. If you're growing a Trichocereus, water once a week with a concentration of a flower fertilizer normally used for flowering plants. Don't use standard plant fertilizers, as they contain too much nitrogen. Bright light is needed 12-18 hours a day, and the temperature should be 25-35 'C.

The easiest way of propagation is taking cuttings. Cut the mother plant with a clean and sharp knife leaving 5-10 cm of it above ground. Cut back slightly the edges of the cut to ensure that the new roots grow downward. Place the cutting in vertical position to dry for 2 weeks to a month depending on the size of the cutting. The compost where they are placed after this should be very slightly moist, not wet.

For more information about growing cacti read e.g. Cullman, B|tz & Gr|ner 1984: Encyclopedia of Cacti, Alphabooks A&C Black, ISBN 0-906670-37-3.

Usage:

An easy method is to chop a cactus to small pieces, dry the pieces and boil in water with plenty of lemon juice until there's not much liquid left. To reduce nausea you should drink the liquid slowly over a half an hour while avoiding excessive movement. For the same reason don't eat solid food on the day of ingestion. A normal dose of mescaline sulfate is 200-400 mg, which probably corresponds to 10-25 g of dry Peyote or T. peruvianus, or 50-200 g of fresh San Pedro. Potency varies, so try a small dose first. It's also possible to extract mescaline from cacti.

Effects:

Mescaline produces a trip very similar to LSD lasting about 12 hours. The effects take a bit longer to come on. Mescaline is cross-tolerant with LSD, psilocin and other psychedelics. A common side-effect is nausea, which is worse when ingesting Peyote than other cacti because of the extra alkaloids found in Peyote. If you manage to hold the cactus in your stomach for 15-30 minutes before throwing it up, you can still have a fine and nausea-free trip.

Mescaline does not cause chromosome damage in normal doses.

History:

Peyote has been in use in America for at least 2000 years. The Spanish conquistadors didn't like the use of drug plants by the Indians, and catholic clerics declared officially in 1620 that since the use of peyote was the work of the devil, all Christians were prohibited from using it. The active prohibition of peyote still persists. A religious manual written in 1760 presented the following series of questions for the penitent:

Have you ever killed anyone?

How many have you murdered?

Have you eaten the flesh of man?

Have you eaten peyote?

Peyote was used for several centuries in Mexico before peyotism spread into the US in the second half of the 19th century. Today it's legal for the members of the Native American Church to use Peyote in several states.

The San Pedro cactus has been used by Peruvian folk healers to combat the supernatural elements that cause diseases.

Active Constituents (of some cacti)

Botanical name mescaline other alkaloids

Genus species

Lophophora williamsii ~1% dry Ann,And,Ant,Annd,H,L,P,T

Trichocereus peruvianus 0.8% dry T

pachanoi 0.1% wet Annd,H,T

bridgesii 0.1% wet T

validus 0.1% wet

macrogonus <0.05% wet T

terschecki <0.05% wet Ann

werdermann <0.05% wet T

taquimbal <0.05% wet H

cuzcoensis <0.01% wet T

Stetsonia coryne <0.01% wet T

Pelecyphora aselliformis 0.00002% And,H,P

Mescaline content is probably given as hydrochloride, 128 mg mescaline HCl = 200 mg mescaline sulfate. Doses of mescaline are usually measured as sulfate. "Dry" means dry weight, "wet" fresh weight.

Ann = anhalonine causes paralysis followed by hyperexitability in rabbits

And = anhalodine stimulant, not potent

Annd = anhalonidine similar to pellotine

H = hordenine

L = lophophorine causes convulsions, similar to strychnine

P = pellotine causes drowsiness and slowing of heartbeat

T = tyramine

References:

Agurell, S. 1969: Cactaceae alkaloids I. Lloydia 32,2

Agurell, S. 1971: Cactaceae alkaloids X. Alkaloids of Trichocereus Species and Some Other Cacti. Lloydia 34,2

Anderson, E.F. 1980: Peyote - the Divine Cactus. The University of Arizona Press, ISBN 0-8165-0613-2.

Pardanani, J.H. & McLaughlin, J.L. 1977: Cactus Alkaloids XXXVI. Mescaline and Related Compounds from Trichocereus Peruvianus. Lloydia 40,6

LETTUCE OPIUM

Family:

Compositae

Genus:

Lactuca

Species:

virosa

Usage:

Materials are extracted in a juicer and eaten fresh or dried and smoked.

Effects:

Mild sedative effect similar to opium. Very, very mild buzz, almost unnoticable. Not worth the hassle of obtaining from the plant, and not worth the cost of buying refined herb. Watch out for "incense" concoctions sold in head shops and through mail order that claim to have alternative uses. These are usually worthless, overpriced Lettuce opium preparations.

History:

Formerly used in medicine as an opium substitute.

Active Constituents:

lactucin, lactucerol (taraxaxterol), lactucic acid

FROM THE NET:

~From: [email protected] (Petrus Pennanen)

~Subject: Re: lactucarium

~Date: 8 Jul 91 20:24:16 GMT

Organization: University of Helsinki

Ronald Siegel writes in _Intoxication_:

"In each major category of intoxicant used by our species, there appear

to be one or two drug plants that researchers have noted are more

controllable, hence safer, than all the other plants or synthetics in

that category. [...] Among the narcotics, which include opium and its

derivatives, there is lactucarium, the smokable extract derived from

Lactuca Virosa."

"Consider the case of lactucarium, which never caught on as a

modern opium substitute because either so mild or so inconsistent in

quality that people thought it was a fake.

Lactucarium smells like opium and tastes just as bitter. When smoked

or swallowed, it is so mildly intoxicating it remains legal. There are

no visions like the ones De Quincey had from eating opium, but the

euphoria and dreamy intoxication last slightly longer. Although

lactucarium is structurally unrelated to the opiates, it will still

soothe irritating cough, ease minor pains, and help induce sleep, hence

its more common name of 'lettuce opium.' The history of lettuce opium in

America paralleled that of coca tea. Both drugs enjoyed widespread

medical use in nineteenth century and brief periods of experimental

nonmedical use in more recent years.

In the mid-1970s, smokable extracts of lettuce opium were marketed

throughout the United States under such brand names as L'Opium and

Lettucene. 'Buy your lettuce before they make it illegal!' announced the

national ads. Hundreds of thousands did exactly that when the craze

peaked in the late 1970s. There was not a single case of toxicity or

dependency. But there was a lot of competition as different

manufacturers rushed to get a share of the new market. Most of these

newer brands were made from ordinary garden lettuce, which lacked the

intoxicating lactucarium. Subsequently, sales fell, some suppliers of

real lactucarium went out of business, and the fad all but disappeared.

While lactucarium is still available, heroin users are not rushing to

buy it and probably never will: it's simply too weak."

Petrus Pennanen [email protected]

HAWAIIAN BABY WOODROSE SEEDS

Family:

Convolvulaceae

Genus:

Argyreia

Species:

nervosa

Usage:

seed pods contain 4-6 seeds. Seeds are removed from pods and fungus-like coating is scraped or flamed off (author recommends scaping as much as possible and flaming the rest, as the coating can be thick and it's easy to end up turning the whole seed into a chunk of carbon if you just flame it). 4-8 seeds are chewed on an empty stomach (to minimize nausea). Seeds sold commercially are generally already removed from the pods. The seeds themselves resemble small chocolate chips, but are hard as rocks and have the coating mentioned above.

Nausea can be lessened by ingesting one or two dramamine 30 minutes to one hour before ingesting the HBW seeds. More dramamine can be taken after the nausea sets in, however, dramamine can be a DANGEROUS drug in high doses and its synergistic effects with LSA are unknown. Exceeding the recommended dosage given on the dramamine box is probably a pretty stupid thing to do under any circumstances.

If dramamine is not used, inducing vomiting when nausea starts will provide relief but effects will continue. You can also grind and soak the seeds in water, then strain them out and drink the water. If ground seeds are used, make sure they are fresh ground.

Effects:

LSD-like effects, but less intense, with less visuals. Trip lasts 6-8 hours; tranquil feelings may last additional 12 hours. Sleep is deep and refreshing after trip, however some users may experience a hangover characterized by blurred vision, vertigo, and physical intertia.

History:

Used by the poorer Hawaiians for a high. Shipping of these seeds became popular, as did a great controversy over the propriety of world-wide distribution.

Interaction precautions: same as for Morning Glory seeds.

Active Constituents:

D-lysergic Acid Amide and related compounds. NOTE: net wisdom has it that extracting LSA from woodrose/mg seeds is an inefficient way to obtain a precursor for LSD.

Note:

Hawaiian Large woodrose seeds supposedly have the same effect. Dosage is identical.

MORNING GLORY SEEDS

Family:

Convolvulaceae

Genus:

Ipomoea

Species:

arborescens (Quauhzahautl): tree grows to 15' high. Native to Mexico.

carnea (fistolusa): bush with pink flowers native to Ecuador.

costata: native to australia.

leptophylia: wine colored flowers 3" across. Huge edible roots.

meulleri: native to australia.

murucoides: (Pajaro bobo) native to oaxca.

purpurea: native to mexico, common throughout N. America as an ornamental.

violacea (Tlitliltzin): sacred Mayan morning glory. Widely used for its psychoactive effects in the Heavenly blue, Pearly Gates, Flying Suacers and Wedding Bells strains.

Usage:

5-10 grams of seeds can be ingested as follows:

thoroughly chew and swallow

grind and soak in water for 1/2 hour, strain and drink

sprout by soaking in water for 3-4 days (change water often), after which the white mushy part is removed from the shell and eaten. This is probably the best method for avoiding side effects, although I have I have reason to believe sprouting the seeds lessens their effectiveness.

Most commercially available Morning glory seeds are treated with chemicals to thwart consumption. Seeds are also sometimes treated with Methyl mercury to prevent spoilage. Chemically treated seeds can cause severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Effects:

LSD like experience lasting about 6 hours, but with less hallucinogenic effects. Nausea is common even with untreated seeds. Less anxiety, less intensity than LSD in normal doses.

Nausea can be lessened by ingesting one or two dramamine 30 minutes to one hour before ingesting the MG seeds. More dramamine can be taken after the nausea sets in, however, dramamine can be a DANGEROUS drug in high doses and its synergistic effects with LSA are unknown. Exceeding the recommended dosage given on the dramamine box is probably a pretty stupid thing to do under any circumstances.

History:

The Zapotecs used ipomoea violacea by grinding the seeds up and wrapping them in a meal cloth. They would then soak it in cold water and would find out information about the illness of a patient, a troublemaker among the people, or the location of a lost object.

Interaction precautions: should not be taken by people with a history of liver disorders or hepatitis. Should not be taken by pregnant women.

Active Constituents:

D-lysergic acid amide

NATIVE SOUTH AMERICAN INTOXICANTS

Family:

Acanthaceae

Genus:

Justicia

Species:

pectoralis (var. stenophylla)

Usage:

Waikas of Orinoco headwaters in Venezuela add dried and pulverized leaves of this herb to their Virola-snuff.

Effects:

Unknown

Active Constituents:

Intensely aromatic smelling leaves probably contain tryptamines.

Plants are available from ...Of the jungle for $35. ------------------------- Family: Leguminosae Genus: Anadenanthera (Piptadenia) species: peregrina colubrina Usage: Black beans from these trees are toasted, pulverized and mixed with ashes or calcined shells to make psychedelic snuff called yopo by Indians in Orinoco basin in Colombia, Venezuela and possibly in southern part of Brasilian Amazon. Yopo is blown into the nostrils through bamboo tubes or snuffed by birdbone tubes. The trees grow in open plain areas, and leaves, bark and seeds contain DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds (Schultes 1976,1977; Pachter et al. 1959). Active Constituents: DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds. -------------------------- Family: Leguminosae Genus: Mimosa Species: tenuiflora (== hostilis) "tepescohuite" verrucosa General: The roots of M. hostilis, which is *not* the common houseplant M. pudica ("sensitive plant"), contain 0.57% DMT and are used by Indians of Pernambuso State in Brazil as part of their Yurema cult (Pachter et al. 1959, Schultes 1977, Meckes-Lozoya et al. 1990). Bark of M. verrucosa also contains DMT (Smith 1977). Active Constituents: DMT --------------------------- Family: Malpighiaceae Genus: Banisteriopsis Species: rusbyana argentea Usage: Natives of western Amazon add DMT-containing leaves of the vine B. rusbyana to a drink made from B. caapi, which contains beta-carbolines harmine and harmaline, to heighten and lengthen the visions (Schultes 1977, Smith 1977). Active Constituents: leaves contain DMT. --------------------------- Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: calophylla calophylloidea rufula sebifera theiodora Usage: The bark resin of these trees is used to prepare hallucinogenic snuffs in northwestern Brazil by boiling, drying and pulverizing it. Sometimes leaves of a Justicia are added. Amazonian Colombia natives roll small pellets of boiled resin in a evaporated filtrate of bark ashes of Gustavia Poeppigiana and ingest them to bring on a rapid intoxication (Smith 1977, Schultes 1977). Effects: The snuff acts rapidly and violently, "effects include excitement, numbness of the limbs, twitching of facial muscles, nausea, hallucinations, and finally a deep sleep; macroscopia is frequent and enters into Waika beliefs about the spirits resident in the drug." Active Constituents: Snuffs made from V. theiodora bark contain up to 11% 5-MeO-DMT and DMT. Leaves, roots and flowers also contain DMT. ------------------------- Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Psychotria Species: viridis (psychotriaefolia) Usage: Psychotria leaves are added to a hallucinogenic drink prepared from Banisteriopsis caapi and B. rusbyana (which contain beta-carbolines) to strengthen and lengthen the effects in western Amazon. Active Constituents: P. viridis contains DMT (Schultes 1977). 5 seeds$10 from ...Of the jungle, leaves are also available.

References:

Meckes-Lozoya, M., Lozoya, X., Marles, R.J., Soucy-Breau, C., Sen, A., Arnason, J.T. 1990. N,N-dimethyltryptamine alkaloid in Mimosa tenuiflora bark (tepescohuite). Arch. Invest. Med. Mex. 21(2) 175-7

Pachter, I.J, Zacharias, D.E & Ribeir, O. 1959. Indole Alkaloids of Acer saccharinum (the Silever Maple), Dictyoloma incanescens, Piptadenia colubrina, and Mimosa hostilis. J Org Chem 24 1285-7

Schultes, R.E. 1976. Indole Alkaloids in Plant Hallucinogens. J of Psychedelic Drugs Vol 8 No 1 7-25.

Schultes, R.E. 1977. The Botanical and Chemical Distribution of Hallucinogens. J of Psychedelic Drugs Vol 9 No 3 247-263

Smith, T.A. 1977. Review: Tryptamine and Related Compounds in Plants. Phytochemistry Vol 16 171-175.

NUTMEG

Family:

Myristicaceae

Genus:

Myristica

Species:

fragrans

Usage:

5-20 grams of ground nutmeg is ingested. Fresh ground is best. Can also be taken in a "space paste" concoction (see below). Space paste is difficult/expensive to make and tastes like shit; however, it may actually decrease the side effects.

Effects:

Possible nausea during first hour; may cause vomiting or diarrhea in isolated cases. Takes anywhere from one to five hours for effects to set in. Then expect severe cottonmouth, flushing of skin, severely bloodshot eyes, dilated pupils. Personally I compare it to a very, very heavy hash buzz. "Intense sedation". Impaired speech and motor functions. Hallucinations uncommon in average (5-10 gm) doses. Generally followed by long, deep, almost coma-like sleep (expect 16 hours of sleep afterward) and feelings of lethargy after sleep. May cause constipation, water retention. Safrole is carcinogenic and toxic to the liver.

History:

Nutmeg was a very important trade item in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was a precious commodity due to the enormous medicinal properties of its seeds. Slaves on the ships bringing nutmeg to Europe got in trouble for eating part of the cargo. They knew that a few large kernels of nutmeg would bring them a pleasant, euphoric feeling, and relieved their weariness and pain. Nutmeg was even used when the feeble King Charles II almost died of a clot or hemorrhage. His death a few days later did nothing to detract from its useful reputation. Rumor spread through London that Nutmegs could act as an abortifacient. The ladies who procured abortions from nutmeg were called "nutmeg ladies."

Interaction precautions:

MAO inhibitor

Active Constituents:

Methylenedioxy-substituted compounds: myristicin (non-amine precursor of 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine [M-MDA]) elemicin, and safrole.

From The Net:

~From: [email protected] (Michael G. Goldsman)

~Subject: Nutmeg Story

~Date: 11 Aug 91 23:56:07 GMT

Organization: Georgia Institute of Technology

Friday, a "friend" of mine decided to see what all the talk about nutmeg

was all about... here's what happened...

8:15 -- "he" took 1 tablespoon of ground nutmeg...

9:15 -- "he" took 1 more tablespoon of ground nutmeg...

11:15 -- "he" took still 1 more tablespoon of ground nutmeg...

As of now, "he" didn't feel anything... "He" got the beginnings of a buzz

at about 12:30 which gradually increased in intensity...

By 3 am or so, he compared it to moderate cannibis buzz

It peaked at at 5 am, and he then went to sleep.

The effects continued through saturday afternoon and

night, though not as intense as late friday night (or saturday morning

technically).

By sunday morning, the effects were totally gone.

The main point is, that except for lots of drowsiness, my "friend" never

suffered any of the ill effects that people have described ...

(such as nausea and headaches)

It was very comprable to a medium marijuana buzz. There were

no hallucinations, but maybe a larger dose is needed for this.

Next week my "friend" will go for 5 tablespons over the course

of a few hours.. Will he live to describe the experience??

==================================

~From: [email protected] (Jeffery Tye)

~Subject: Space paste! (was Re: nutmeg as a hallucinogen)

~Date: Sat, 29 Jun 91 01:59:09 GMT

Organization: The Scantily Clad Orangutans, Inc.

'Space Paste'

heart chakra, but it's a legal high that will get you pleasantly

buzzed. :-) DON NOT OMIT ANY INGREDIENTS. Trust me.

4 parts nutmeg (ground from whole nutmeg)

4 parts almonds (soak almonds overnight and rinse)

4 parts *raw* pistachios

2 parts cinnamon

1 part cumin

1 part tarragon

1 part oregano

1 part basil

1 part tumeric

1/2 part cayenne pepper

1/2 part black pepper

To taste: Maple Syrup

One part equals 1/4 cup.

[if you want to make enough for about 500 people, that is. Try 1 part=1

tablespoon--ed]

- Use only whole nutmeg. Not pre-ground.

- Grind up all ingredients with a spice grinder or food processor.

- Mix in Maple syrup until consistency of paste.

- Do not omit any ingredient, or it will NOT work.

Okay, you've gone this far, time to enjoy. The strong at heart will

spread some on toast. I like it blended in milk. It has a real strong

taste, so it's best to put it in the milk, fire up the blender, pour it

into a glass and chug it down in one gulp.

Start with two tablespoons. Effects begin in two hours. I've known

brave souls who take a cup at a time. Maybe that's why they disappear

for a couple of days.

=================================

~Date: Wed, 2 Oct 91 09:57:26 MDT

~From:

~Subject: More on Nutmeg Story

Begin forwarded message:

Well, I am recovering from a horrible experience.

Tuesday night about 10:30pm, I took 5 tablespoons of Nutmeg.

I am still hungover, almost 2 days later.

I got the initial stimulation, euphoria, but not much more than what one gets around 2 tablespoons.

That was fine and dandy. I fell asleep at about 1:30am, with nothing psychedelic occurring yet.

I woke up at 3 am spinning, like I was drunk. I awoke again at 9am, and got out of bed. I had to:

thirsty as hell, no saliva. I had wicked troubles walking, far too dizzy and -out-of-it-. Just like I

had no control over my body. Also, any movement that I did make nauseated me. By 9:30 I had my

drink of water, and I collapsed on the kitchen floor, sleeping until noon. I thought that I would

have something to eat, at that time, but was far too dizzy still to do anything. By this time I was in

a panic, thinking that I had comitted suicide, etc.etc. My body felt like it was melding with the

floor; I also felt that my whole body was made of vomit. Quite odd. I crawled (literally) up to bed

again and slept like a stone until 6pm. I managed to eat some stuff. I could stand for 30 seconds at

a time, by this time. I watched a movie, dozing on and off. I looked at myself in a mirror: horrible

sight, very red sunken eyes etc.etc. Went to bed and awoke this morning at 11:30am. Awoke with

something like a horrible hangover. I feel like I have had a wicked flu yesterday and today.

Besides some odd physical sensations and perceptions, even this dosage was not overtly

hallucinogenic. I did not experience any colour / visual perception changes this time, like at the

lower dosage. Perhaps I was just too sleepy to notice.

This experience was just downright gross. I think I have given up experimenting with Nutmeg

(and Mace) [ even though I really like the taste of the stuff. Some people complain they can't get the

stuff down --- they must not be using fresh stuff]. It was really an offputting experience. Tonight,

I think I am just going to hunt down something illegal but safer.

YOHIMBE BARK

Family:

Rubiaceae

Genus:

Corynanthe

Species:

yohimbe

Usage:

6-10 teaspoons of shaved bark are boiled 10 minutes in 1 pt. water, strained and sipped slowly. Addition of 500 mg of vitamin C per cup makes it take effect more quickly and potently (probably by forming easily assimilated ascorbates of the alkaloids). Bark can also be smoked. Yohimbine hydrochloride, a refined powder version, can also be snuffed. Also available at many health/herb stores is a liquid extract.

Effects:

Called "the most potent aphrodisiac known" and "the only true aphrodisiac". Whether aphrodisiacs exist outside of mythology or not is a topic for debate, as is the definition of "aphrodisiac". Anyway, first effects after 30 minutes (sooner with vitamin C) consist of warm, pleasant spinal shivers, followed by psychic stimulation, heightening of emotional and sexual feelings, mild perceptual changes without hallucinations, sometimes spontaneous erections. Some experience nausea during first 30 minutes. Sexual activity is especially pleasurable. According to one source "Bantu orgies have been known to last over a week" [Ed: don't they get hungry?]. Total experience lasts 2-4 hours, however, several experiences lasting up to 24 hours have been reported. Aftereffects include pleasant, relaxed feelings with no hangover, but difficulty sleeping for a few hours (probably largely due to the increased mental activity).

Since they sell the stuff in health food stores and I'm not sure what it's legitimate uses are, I'm willing to admit that I've tried it. My experience was worth repeating. This of course constitutes no endorsement on my part of illegal or legal drugs or of the use of yohimbe for any reason at all.

I ground about 7 teaspoons of shaved bark in a spice grinder (fresh grinding seems to help with release of the active ingredients) and then boiled it in a pint of water for about 10 minutes. The stuff absorbs a lot of water. Also, when freshly ground, you get some FINE FINE FINE particles. It took me a good 15 minutes to filter the stuff out through coffee filters (had to use a bunch of filters cuz it clogged them up so bad). The resulting brew was one of the top three worst things I've ever tasted in my life (the other two being calamus root and an abortive attempt at a kava kava concoction). It tasted kind of like bile. You can kill the taste if you put enough honey in the tea, but the aftertaste never goes away. As soon as you swallow it creeps up your throat; really gross. The fact that the stuff should be sipped slowly makes this even worse. I would recommend finding a REAL strong chaser, like pure lemon juice or maybe a mint leaf--something that obliterates all other taste in your mouth when you eat/drink/chew it, yet is tolerably pleasant tasting. I would swig/chew this chaser after every sip of yohimbe tea.

WARNING:

The active ingredients in yohimbe are mild MAO inhibitors. [see MAO Inhibitors above]

Anyway, I took the tea with vitamin C. About 20 minutes after I got done drinking it I felt some mild nausea (more in my throat than in my stomach), some mellow trippy effects (just mostly weird thoughts and vivid mental images--nothing near a hallucination, no LSD-like mind racing), also had some speedy effects (like being on 500 mg of caffeine--jitters, etc) and started getting a little "pressure" in the groinal region. To make a long story short, the nausea was a bummer, and sex was incredible. Yohimbe completely changes the meaning of the word "orgasm" for men, anyway. I have no idea what a woman's reaction to it would be.

The sexual effects lasted about 4 hours (only cuz I was getting tired :^); the speedy effects decreased earlier than that, but I couldn't sleep at all that night (even when I was ready to), and I'm sure it was because of the yohimbe.

I also recently tried the yohimbe extract that they sell in health food stores. The stuff costs about $7/oz. It comes in one ounce bottles with screw-on eye-dropper caps. Recommended dose on the bottle is 3-20 drops up to three times a day. First time I tried it I took 35 drops with absolutely no effects. Recently, I took 100 drops mixed in orange juice. The stuff is tasteless in minute quantities, but at 100 drops/~8 oz. of OJ, it added a mildly bitter taste. Not too bad, tho--1000x better than the tea. Anyway, it didn't do anything, so I took another 50 drops, then another 50, and still no effects whatsoever. I wonder if the extract is even active. I would advise yohimbe experimenters to use the tea form, and start out with 4 or five teaspoons of fresh ground bark, as the effects of 7 teaspoons were quite pronounced in me, and I am a 200 lb. male with a high tolerance for everything. History: Interaction precautions: MAO inhibitor. Active Constituents: Yohimbine, yohimbiline, ajmaline. (Note that yohimBE is the plant; yohimBINE is one of the chemical principles found in the plant.) FROM THE NET: ~From: [email protected] (Steve Dyer) ~Subject: Re: Yohimbine bark ~Date: 18 Jul 91 02:17:32 GMT Organization: S.P. Dyer Computer Consulting, Cambridge MA Ecni Asked: >Anyone care to enlighten us yohimbine-illiterate readers what yohimbine >bark is and what it does? Yohimbine is the primary alkaloid found in yohimbine bark. It is an alpha-2-adrenergic antagonist. It blocks presynaptic inhibitory synapses, meaning that it tends to increase central and peripheral adrenergic activity. It tends to cause nervousness and increases blood pressure. It also seems to be effective in some cases of impotence. Steve Dyer [email protected] aka {ima,harvard,rayssd,linus,m2c}!spdcc!dyer [email protected] DATURA Family: Solanaceae Genus: Datura Species: fastuosa: large shrub with white flowers inoxia (Don Juan's Datura): native to mexico metel: native to India. sanguinea (Eagle Datura, Tonga): Native to S. America. stramonium (Jimson Weed): Dangerous hallucinogen widespread in temperate regions. Other species: tatula, brugmansia, candida, suaveolens, arborea, aurea, dolichocarpa, vulcanicola, discolor Usage: Leaves are sometimes smoked. Small amount of seed can be pulverized and added to drinks as in the Algonquin ritual. Effects: described as "delerium". Leaves are hallucinogenic and hypnotic. Seeds cause mental confusion and delirium followed by deep sleep with colorful hallucinations. Excessive amounts are toxic. May cause blacking out and severe headaches. Yaqui indian brujos say it causes insanity. THIS SUBSTANCE IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED DANGEROUS. History: discolor (Desert Thornapple): used by hopi shamans for divination. inoxia: "Don Juan's Datura" is used in it's native mexico by Yaqui bruhos for divination metel: Used by the Thuggee cult in it's native India to drug sacrificial victims to Kali. sanguinea (Eagle Datura, Tonga): Used by Aztecs in the Temple of the Sun. Peruvian natives believe it allows them to communicate with departed souls. stramonium (Jimson Weed): Dangerous hallucinogen widespread in temperate regions. Used by Algonquins in ritual drink called "Wysoccan" to introduce boys to manhood. Active Constituents: Scopolamine, atropine, hyoscyamine and other tropanes. "Hyoscyamine and scopolamine possess specific anticholinergic, antispasmodic activity and elicit some central nervous effects as well. These effects usually consist of stimulation at low doses, depression in higher toxic doses. ... Intoxication with atropine or hyoscyamine is characterized by psychic excitation often combined with panic and hallucination. Scopolamine was found to produce a state of excitement followed by a kind of narcosis in which, in the transition state between consciousness and sleep, hallucinations sometimes occur (Heimann, 1952). These effects explain the addition of belladonna and other solanaceous plants as ingredients of magic brews in medieval Europe and of sacred medicines by the Indians of Mexico and South America." (Schultes and Hoffman, 1980) NOTE: Family Solanaceae is the potato family (did you know potatoes have a lower LD50 than marijuana? It's true). Many members of this family contain tropanes and have a history of ritualistic use. Other commonly-used members are the Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum), Belladonna (a.k.a. deadly nightshade) (Atropa belladonna), Thornapple (Datura inoxia), Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), and Iochroma. All these substances will be covered in more detail in a future version of this faq. Kuthmithi (Withania somnifera) is one member of the Potato family that does not appear to contain active amounts of tropanes and is generally considered safe for use as a sedative. FROM THE NET: ~From: [email protected] (Gerald Bryan (Denver)) ~Subject: Re: Shrooms, Datura etc ~Date: 29 Aug 91 16:43:51 GMT In article <[email protected]> [email protected] (Fie nd) writes: > How many people have lasting physical damage from Datura? I know one person who has used Datura. She was an experienced drug user at the time. She said it gave her tremendous visions, but it took her a year before she felt that her eyesight was back to normal. She only used it once. Two years ago, there was a story in the local paper about some college students in Boulder who walked buck naked into a police station, totally out of it. They had apparently consumed some datura (on purpose) up in the mountains. =============================== ~From: [email protected] (marsthom) ~Subject: BADUNGA & MORNING GLORY SEEDS ~Date: 25 Sep 91 21:32:50 GMT Organization: Albedo Communications I ran across this citation while doing a computer search: ARDILA A; MORENO C Scopolamine intoxication as a model of transient global amnesia. Brain Cogn. 1991 Mar; 15(2): 236-45 In Colombia (South America) during recent decades the administration of scopolamine, extracted from plants belonging to the Datura or Brugmansia genus, has become an important neurologic and toxicologic phenomenon. These extracts have been popularly known as "Burundanga." Chemical characteristics and clinical features of scopolamine intoxication are described. Anterograde amnesia and submissive behavior found in patients intoxicated with scopolamine are analyzed. Burundanga intoxication is related to other toxic phenomena found in different countries and similitudes with transient global amnesia are emphasized. Datura seeds look like brownish hot-pepper or tomato seeds. They are flat or lens-like disks, about 1/8 inch in diameter, with an irregular bulge where the stem-scar is. The intoxication from Datura and other plants in that same group (the Nightshade family, "Solanaceae") is more of a delirium than a psychedelic experience. The intoxication resembles that of a strong dose of Mandrake tea, for instance. Other symptoms would be a dry mouth, a wierd floaty feeling, and muddled thinking. The active substances in Datura-like plants are also quite toxic and have been fatal on occasion. ----------------------------------- ~From: [email protected] (Eli Brandt) ~Subject: Re: datura seeds... ~Date: 30 Sep 91 21:41:48 GMT Organization: Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711 _The_Botany_and_Chemistry_of_Hallucinogens_, Schultes and Hofmann, sez that: {\it Datura metel}'s seeds have a total alkaloid content of 0.2 to 0.5 percent, mostly scopolamine. More relevantly, D. inoxia is similar in alkaloid content to D. metel. You could look up the ED and LD for scopolamine and calculate the appropriate mass of seeds. You might want to assume the alkaloid content to be significantly higher than 0.5%, just to have a decent margin. Remember, the LD takes precedence over the ED. :-} I take no responsibility for any gruesome death which may be caused by the above information. Eli Brandt [email protected] https://www.erowid.org/psychoactives/faqs/natural_highs_faq.shtml #### The Natural High  Posted on September 23, 2015 at 1:15 PM comments (0) INTRODUCTION The following information was taken without permission from the book _Legal Highs_ by Adam Gottlieb, 1973, Twentieth Century Alchemist, from _The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens_ by Schultes & Hofmann, 2nd Ed. 1980, from _The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms_ by Gary H. Lincoff and Carol Nehring, 1981, Random House, from _Narcotic Plants: Revised and Enlarged_ by William Emboden, 1979, MacMillan Publishing, from various mail-order greenhouse literature, from personal experiences of many people (friends of friends, and fictional characters that exist only in the authors' and editors' imaginations) and (mostly) from alt.drugs. Some sections contain a "References" section if the author of that section felt like going to the trouble; some mention references on the fly in the text, and some are just unreferenced. Some personal correspondance is included too; in this case if I could get the author's consent I included his name/email address; if I could not track down the author, I included the mail anonymously. If the author of a particular piece of mail doesn't want it included, I won't include it (although I may paraphrase it without attribution). I left minimal header information in the stuff that was pulled from the net to give credit where due and to provide follow-up paths (do so at your own risk). I didn't have the time (let alone motivation) to mail everyone whose comments are included here to see if it was alright to include them, but if the info was posted to the net once, I can't see a problem with putting it in a faq. A later version might have more eloquent and concise attributions. Much of the net stuff was edited extensively in that irrelevant info was deleted from specific posts; however, the context and spirit of the remaining information was preserved. The substances listed here are arranged in a fairly straightforward format. If a certain section is missing from a certain substance, it means that I had no information to put in that section or it didn't apply. The substances are ordered alphebetically, sorted according to Botanical Family name, then Genus name, then (if necessary) Species name. This was a completely fascist decision on my part, and I did it only because it was the easiest ordering to maintain. Note that the name given in the heading is a common name and has NOTHING to do with the way the list is ordered. At the moment I haven't got time to organize this stuff anymore than it already is (and that's not much). Hopefully in the future I will find time to organize and index it, and to expand it to include dozens of other natural highs. Until then, this mess will have to do. Spelling errors are numerous and rampant, and I take no responsibility for any of them even tho many of them are undoubtedly mine. A WORD ABOUT MAO INHIBITORS [Erowid Note: The section of the FAQ on MAO Inhibitors contains some inaccuracies. For more complete information about MAOIs, read Erowid's MAOI Vault and seek other sources.] Some of the substances described in this file are MAO inhibitors; this information is provided under the "Interaction precautions" section for the substance in question. MAO stands for MonoAmine Oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain amines and renders them ineffective. MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) are substances that interfere with the action of monoamine oxidase, leaving the amines intact. Inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase can produce a variety of effects, some of which are dangerous. It may be dangerous to combine different MAOIs with each other or to combine them with other chemicals such as strong stimulants (amphetamine, MDMA), SSRIs (Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Celexa, Desyrel, etc), and many other pharmaceuticals. If you are taking a prescription drug that is an MAOI, avoid using contraindicated drugs or substances. There are also a number of common foods and beverages which contain amines that are normally broken down by MAO. If you are taking a prescription MAOI, consult your physician to see whether you should avoid any of these. Substances that may interact with certain MAOIs include: sedatives tranquilizers antihistamines alcohol amphetamines (even diet pills) mescaline asarone nutmeg macromerine ephedrine dill oil parsley oil wild fennel oil cocoa coffee (or any substance that contains large amounts of caffeine) aged cheeses any tyrosine-containing food any other MAO inhibitor THIS LIST IS BY NO MEANS COMPLETE OR ALL-INCLUSIVE. COMBINE DRUGS AT YOUR OWN RISK ! HALLUCINOGENIC MUSHROOMS Family: Agaricaceae Genus: Psilocybe Species: baeocystis (Potent Psilocybe) caerulipes (Blue Foot Psilocybe) coprophila (Dung-loving Psilocybe) cubensis (Common Large Psilocybe) cyanescens (Bluing Psilocybe) pelliculosa (Conifer Psilocybe) semilanceata (Liberty Cap) stunzii (Stunz's Blue Legs) Amanita Muscaria (Fly Agaric), Conocybe smithii (Bog Conocybe) and Gymopilus spectabilis (Big Laughing Gym) are among the other mushroom species known to be hallucinogenic. However, Fly Agarics are classified as poisonous, and, according to _The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms_, the Fly Agarics that grow in North America cause "dilerium, raving, and profuse sweating", unlike their hallucinogenic Siberian counterparts. (Perhaps WOSD propaganda, I realize, but worth considering, at least for those of you who don't normally rave...) WARNING: mushrooms should NEVER be ingested unless positively identified to be non-poisonous by a mycologist. Often the only differences between highly toxic mushrooms and edible mushrooms are extremely subtle and require a great deal of training to distinguish. Also, several hallucinogenic varieties have been shown to be toxic to humans in medium to large doses. Usage: Like most natural plant products, psychedelic mushrooms vary considerably in strength due to genetics, growth medium, and other factors. An effective dose of dried psychedelic mushrooms is on the order of 1 gram. This would be on the order of one or two whole mushrooms (best bet is to weigh them and make sure). Because strength varies widely, you should ask other people who have had mushrooms from the same source about the relative strength. For mushrooms from an unknown source, .5 grams of dried mushrooms is probably a decent place to start. 'Shrooms are best taken on an empty stomach. Carlos Castenada describes the effects of a mushroom-based preparation when smoked, and anyone who has taken 'Shrooms would agree that the effects that he describes are much more intense than the effects of reasonable dosages taken orally. Although many people think that Carlos made the whole thing up, it is possible that mushrooms are smokable and that smoked mushrooms might produce a different experience than ingested, because 'Shrooms contain many compounds known as tryptamines (as in dimethyl- tryptamine (DMT)) which are also psychoactive when smoked but not active orally. Other than Carlos, I've never heard of anyone else smoking mushrooms or mushroom products, so I can't vouch for the effects. If you don't like the taste of 'Shrooms, it is also possible to consume a tea made by boiling mushroom fragments in water. The idea here is to sprinkle dried mushroom fragments on water and boil them until they sink, and then filter out the actual 'Shrooms and enjoy the tea. Effects: The effects of psychedelic mushrooms are comparable to those of LSD, but different in a number of ways. For one thing, the trip lasts aproximately 6 hours, about half of what an LSD trip does. Mushrooms also have less stimulant effect than LSD. Mushrooms tend to be more visual than LSD and less auditory. LSD is probably better for enhancing perception of music, although psilocybin does alter the perception of sound (seems to make background noise louder) and like tryptamine- based psychedelics, also tends to induce auditory hallucinations that sound like 'noise'. 'Shrooms do have definite physical effects that are both similar and different to those of LSD. Shrooms tend to cause 'Liquid Breathing', especially before the onset of psychedelic effects. (Like LSD) Shrooms don't cause stomach cramps, but they do seem to cause a headache sometimes. A short term cross tolerance does develop between pscilocybin, mescaline, and LSD, but there appears to be no long term tolerance, except for learned behavior which allows one, for instance, to learn how to talk somewhat coherently despite what psychedelics do to the language centers and short term memory. Another important difference between 'shrooms and LSD is that the onset time of effects from ingestion is MUCH shorter. In the experience of people that I know, the onset of effects is aproximately 30-45 minutes after ingestion, and the transition from physical effects to mild depersonalization to intense hallucination is very short, even in the subjective time of the tripper. There is a period of aproximately one hour where psychedelic effects (visual/auditory hallucination, flickering of visual field, time overlay effect, time distortion, breakdown of linguistic centers, etc.) are VERY intense, and the rest of the trip seems to be more psychological, that is, very little hallucination, mostly depersonalization and time distorsion. This is a very excellent time to spend in a natural environment (your local woods, desert, or savanna) because it tends to produce shamanistic, in touch with nature feelings much better than LSD does. Bad trips are very possible with mushrooms, and are probably very similar to bad trips on acid. If you know or suspect that a tripper is experiencing eyes-open visual hallucinations, you might want to take them to a place where no there are no regular geometric patterns that cover most of the visual field. High dosages of mushrooms seem to affect perception of regular tiled surfaces much more so than irregular surfaces. If possible, suggest to the tripper that you go to a place where there is a featureless floor (say a drab carpet or a concrete floor). It's also good to find a warm place, but always heed to the will of the tripper so long as he doesn't want to do anything stupid like jump off a cliff. See if you can find some mellow music that is pleasing to the tripper (Say, the Grateful Dead or Spyro Gyra) and remember that little things like turning the intensity of light up or down can have a big emotional effect. Be sure to ask about these things. When talking to someone on a bad trip, it often helps to keep changing his train of thought; many people find that this keeps the anxiety at a lower level. The primary rule is to watch the reaction of the tripper to what you do, and take his needs and fears into consideration. Keep him with people that he trusts and try to remove any people that he doesn't trust. Of course, this advice is valid for hallucinogens in general. History: The practice of growing mushrooms dates back to around 100 B.C., and is based partly upon the discovery of minature mushroom stones found near Gautemala City. Other finds further north also indicate an extensive mushroom cult in the early civilizations. When Cortez arrived in Central America, he found the natives using mushrooms as a sacrament. They called them "teonanacatl", or "God's Flesh." The Spainards reacted strongly to the mushrooms, giving written accounts of the loathsome mushroom rituals that "provoke lust... cause not death, but madness... and bring before the eyes wars and the likeness of demons." Teonanacatl was then banned from the church as contributing to pagan behavior and idolitry. The only tribe definately known to have consumed the mushrooms, however, is the Chichimecas. Six tribes consume mushrooms today in Oaxaca: Mazatecs, Chinantecs, Chatinos, Zapotecs, Mixtecs, and Mijes. It has recently been suggested that mushroom use by the Chol and Lacandon Maya may be a vestage from the earlier Mayans that disappeared for a time, and then was readopted. Present day ritual among them Mazatec includes many rituals from the Catholic Church. Even though the Catholics tried to eliminate the detested fungi, the Indians still chant saints of the church and incorporate litanies, which are undoubtedly post-Christian elements of their ritual. Interaction precautions: I wouldn't recomend using them with alcohol or other depressants. Also, people who are being medicated for a psychological conditions, particularly with MAO-inhibitor class drugs probably DON'T want to use 'Shrooms or any psychedelic because MAO-inhibitors tend to interact seriously with most psychoactive compounds. Active Ingredients: The primary active components of 'Shrooms are psilocybin and psilocin, which also is an immediate metabolite of psilocybin. There are a whole family of other tryptamine-related substances in 'Shrooms but most of them are not active when eaten. For further reading: Several books are available on the subject of growing mushrooms, which is a rather complex task because it involves maintaining a sterile environment and quite a bit of biology lab skills. The best book on the subject is "Psilocybin: The magic mushroom grower's guide" by Oss and Oeric from And/Or press. Spores are available by mail order; check High Times magazine. These are legal to sell because they contain no psychoactive compounds. Spores can also be obtained by taking a cap print from mushrooms that you obtain from another source, like the wild. ======================================== [some interesting info on Fly Agarics follows. Note that these are much more poisonous than psilocybe varieties, the info above does not necessarily apply to them, and the info below does not necessarily apply to psilocybes. --ED] ~From: [email protected] (David A. Honig) ~Subject: Re: mail order botanicals ~Date: 11 Nov 91 22:00:34 GMT Organization: UC Irvine Department of ICS In article <[email protected]> [email protected] (Eli Brandt) writes: >>anyone know the legality of fly agaric? anyone have any experience with >>it? > >I'm sure it's legal. _Merck's_ sez that neither ibotenic acid and muscarine >were "controlled substances" (what a *dumb* term) as of '76; was there maybe >a "Toadstool Regulation Act" I missed? Anyway, you could call it "soma" and >have a real good case for religious use... > >I don't know what the dose would be. The LD-50 iv in mice for muscarine is >0.23 mg/kg; ibotenic acid is (for mice/rats) 15/42 iv and 38/129 oral. I'd >be careful with anything with such a wide difference in toxicity between >fairly similar species. I vaguely recall that muscarine is only found in >the younger shrooms; it looks like you'd want to avoid them, unless it's >also responsible for most of the interesting effects. > >>ecni > > Eli [email protected] I obtained some dried Amanita via an unnamed source. They make you puke (what else is new) and go into a dreamy state. Not "psychedelic" or terribly euphoric. A friend (who is a botanist) has tried fresh ones, reports that they're better. IMHO, they're not worth your time unless your into ethnopsychopharmacology. -- David A. Honig MESCALINE-BEARING CACTI Family: Cactaceae Genus: Gymnocalycium Species: gibbosum: Native to Argentina leeanum: Native to Argentina, Uruquay Genus: Islaya Species: minor: Native to South Peru Genus: Lophophora Species: diffusa (Peyote): Native to Mexico williamsii (Peyote, Mescal,Chaute etc.): the classic Peyote, grows in north central Mexico and south Texas. Genus: Opuntia Species: imbricata: Native to S-W USA to Central Mexico. spinosior: Native to Arizona, New Mexico, Northern Mexico. Genus: Pelecyphora Species: aselliformis (Peyotillo, Peyote meco): Native to San Luis Potosi, Mexico Genus: Pereskia Species: corrugata tampicana: Native to Tampico, Mexico. Genus: Pereskiopsis Species: scandens: Native to Yucatan, Mexico. Genus: Stetsonia Species: coryne: Native to Northwestern Argentina. Genus: Trichocereus Species: cuzcoensis: Native to Cuzco, Peru. fulvianus: Native to Chile. macrogonus: Native to South America. pachanoi (San Pedro, Giganton): Native to Peru, Equador. peruvianus (Peruvian Fence Post): Native to Peru. scopulicola taquimbalensis: Native to Bolivia. terscheckii (Cardon grande): Native to Northwestern Argentina. validus: Native to Bolivia. werdermannianus: Native to Tupiza & Charcoma, Bolivia. Description: Trichocerei are columnar, branched or candelabra like cacti, which usually grow very fast. Cereus is a different genus, whose members haven't been found to contain mescaline. Cultivation: (from seed) Sow the seeds an inch apart on the surface of sterilized, moist, sifted cactus mix. The pH should be 4.5-6.5. Cover the tray or pot with an airtight plastic bag. Place in bright but indirect light for 12 hours a day at less than 30 degrees centigrade. Don't let the temperature get too high, and check to make sure the soil surface is moist, but not too wet. A fungicide may be needed. Cactus seeds will generally germinate in 1-3 weeks. When the seedlings are about 2 cm tall (60-90 days for fast-growing species) transplant them to individual pots. Handle them very cautiously and use moist soil with pH 4.5-6.5 in the new pot. A good soil mix is 1/3 normal flower soil, 1/3 peat and 1/3 coarse sand or gravel. If you're growing a Trichocereus, water once a week with a concentration of a flower fertilizer normally used for flowering plants. Don't use standard plant fertilizers, as they contain too much nitrogen. Bright light is needed 12-18 hours a day, and the temperature should be 25-35 'C. The easiest way of propagation is taking cuttings. Cut the mother plant with a clean and sharp knife leaving 5-10 cm of it above ground. Cut back slightly the edges of the cut to ensure that the new roots grow downward. Place the cutting in vertical position to dry for 2 weeks to a month depending on the size of the cutting. The compost where they are placed after this should be very slightly moist, not wet. For more information about growing cacti read e.g. Cullman, B|tz & Gr|ner 1984: Encyclopedia of Cacti, Alphabooks A&C Black, ISBN 0-906670-37-3. Usage: An easy method is to chop a cactus to small pieces, dry the pieces and boil in water with plenty of lemon juice until there's not much liquid left. To reduce nausea you should drink the liquid slowly over a half an hour while avoiding excessive movement. For the same reason don't eat solid food on the day of ingestion. A normal dose of mescaline sulfate is 200-400 mg, which probably corresponds to 10-25 g of dry Peyote or T. peruvianus, or 50-200 g of fresh San Pedro. Potency varies, so try a small dose first. It's also possible to extract mescaline from cacti. Effects: Mescaline produces a trip very similar to LSD lasting about 12 hours. The effects take a bit longer to come on. Mescaline is cross-tolerant with LSD, psilocin and other psychedelics. A common side-effect is nausea, which is worse when ingesting Peyote than other cacti because of the extra alkaloids found in Peyote. If you manage to hold the cactus in your stomach for 15-30 minutes before throwing it up, you can still have a fine and nausea-free trip. Mescaline does not cause chromosome damage in normal doses. History: Peyote has been in use in America for at least 2000 years. The Spanish conquistadors didn't like the use of drug plants by the Indians, and catholic clerics declared officially in 1620 that since the use of peyote was the work of the devil, all Christians were prohibited from using it. The active prohibition of peyote still persists. A religious manual written in 1760 presented the following series of questions for the penitent: Have you ever killed anyone? How many have you murdered? Have you eaten the flesh of man? Have you eaten peyote? Peyote was used for several centuries in Mexico before peyotism spread into the US in the second half of the 19th century. Today it's legal for the members of the Native American Church to use Peyote in several states. The San Pedro cactus has been used by Peruvian folk healers to combat the supernatural elements that cause diseases. Active Constituents (of some cacti) Botanical name mescaline other alkaloids Genus species Lophophora williamsii ~1% dry Ann,And,Ant,Annd,H,L,P,T Trichocereus peruvianus 0.8% dry T pachanoi 0.1% wet Annd,H,T bridgesii 0.1% wet T validus 0.1% wet macrogonus <0.05% wet T terschecki <0.05% wet Ann werdermann <0.05% wet T taquimbal <0.05% wet H cuzcoensis <0.01% wet T Stetsonia coryne <0.01% wet T Pelecyphora aselliformis 0.00002% And,H,P Mescaline content is probably given as hydrochloride, 128 mg mescaline HCl = 200 mg mescaline sulfate. Doses of mescaline are usually measured as sulfate. "Dry" means dry weight, "wet" fresh weight. Ann = anhalonine causes paralysis followed by hyperexitability in rabbits And = anhalodine stimulant, not potent Annd = anhalonidine similar to pellotine H = hordenine L = lophophorine causes convulsions, similar to strychnine P = pellotine causes drowsiness and slowing of heartbeat T = tyramine References: Agurell, S. 1969: Cactaceae alkaloids I. Lloydia 32,2 Agurell, S. 1971: Cactaceae alkaloids X. Alkaloids of Trichocereus Species and Some Other Cacti. Lloydia 34,2 Anderson, E.F. 1980: Peyote - the Divine Cactus. The University of Arizona Press, ISBN 0-8165-0613-2. Pardanani, J.H. & McLaughlin, J.L. 1977: Cactus Alkaloids XXXVI. Mescaline and Related Compounds from Trichocereus Peruvianus. Lloydia 40,6 LETTUCE OPIUM Family: Compositae Genus: Lactuca Species: virosa Usage: Materials are extracted in a juicer and eaten fresh or dried and smoked. Effects: Mild sedative effect similar to opium. Very, very mild buzz, almost unnoticable. Not worth the hassle of obtaining from the plant, and not worth the cost of buying refined herb. Watch out for "incense" concoctions sold in head shops and through mail order that claim to have alternative uses. These are usually worthless, overpriced Lettuce opium preparations. History: Formerly used in medicine as an opium substitute. Active Constituents: lactucin, lactucerol (taraxaxterol), lactucic acid FROM THE NET: ~From: [email protected] (Petrus Pennanen) ~Subject: Re: lactucarium ~Date: 8 Jul 91 20:24:16 GMT Organization: University of Helsinki Ronald Siegel writes in _Intoxication_: "In each major category of intoxicant used by our species, there appear to be one or two drug plants that researchers have noted are more controllable, hence safer, than all the other plants or synthetics in that category. [...] Among the narcotics, which include opium and its derivatives, there is lactucarium, the smokable extract derived from Lactuca Virosa." "Consider the case of lactucarium, which never caught on as a modern opium substitute because either so mild or so inconsistent in quality that people thought it was a fake. Lactucarium smells like opium and tastes just as bitter. When smoked or swallowed, it is so mildly intoxicating it remains legal. There are no visions like the ones De Quincey had from eating opium, but the euphoria and dreamy intoxication last slightly longer. Although lactucarium is structurally unrelated to the opiates, it will still soothe irritating cough, ease minor pains, and help induce sleep, hence its more common name of 'lettuce opium.' The history of lettuce opium in America paralleled that of coca tea. Both drugs enjoyed widespread medical use in nineteenth century and brief periods of experimental nonmedical use in more recent years. In the mid-1970s, smokable extracts of lettuce opium were marketed throughout the United States under such brand names as L'Opium and Lettucene. 'Buy your lettuce before they make it illegal!' announced the national ads. Hundreds of thousands did exactly that when the craze peaked in the late 1970s. There was not a single case of toxicity or dependency. But there was a lot of competition as different manufacturers rushed to get a share of the new market. Most of these newer brands were made from ordinary garden lettuce, which lacked the intoxicating lactucarium. Subsequently, sales fell, some suppliers of real lactucarium went out of business, and the fad all but disappeared. While lactucarium is still available, heroin users are not rushing to buy it and probably never will: it's simply too weak." Petrus Pennanen [email protected] HAWAIIAN BABY WOODROSE SEEDS Family: Convolvulaceae Genus: Argyreia Species: nervosa Usage: seed pods contain 4-6 seeds. Seeds are removed from pods and fungus-like coating is scraped or flamed off (author recommends scaping as much as possible and flaming the rest, as the coating can be thick and it's easy to end up turning the whole seed into a chunk of carbon if you just flame it). 4-8 seeds are chewed on an empty stomach (to minimize nausea). Seeds sold commercially are generally already removed from the pods. The seeds themselves resemble small chocolate chips, but are hard as rocks and have the coating mentioned above. Nausea can be lessened by ingesting one or two dramamine 30 minutes to one hour before ingesting the HBW seeds. More dramamine can be taken after the nausea sets in, however, dramamine can be a DANGEROUS drug in high doses and its synergistic effects with LSA are unknown. Exceeding the recommended dosage given on the dramamine box is probably a pretty stupid thing to do under any circumstances. If dramamine is not used, inducing vomiting when nausea starts will provide relief but effects will continue. You can also grind and soak the seeds in water, then strain them out and drink the water. If ground seeds are used, make sure they are fresh ground. Effects: LSD-like effects, but less intense, with less visuals. Trip lasts 6-8 hours; tranquil feelings may last additional 12 hours. Sleep is deep and refreshing after trip, however some users may experience a hangover characterized by blurred vision, vertigo, and physical intertia. History: Used by the poorer Hawaiians for a high. Shipping of these seeds became popular, as did a great controversy over the propriety of world-wide distribution. Interaction precautions: same as for Morning Glory seeds. Active Constituents: D-lysergic Acid Amide and related compounds. NOTE: net wisdom has it that extracting LSA from woodrose/mg seeds is an inefficient way to obtain a precursor for LSD. Note: Hawaiian Large woodrose seeds supposedly have the same effect. Dosage is identical. MORNING GLORY SEEDS Family: Convolvulaceae Genus: Ipomoea Species: arborescens (Quauhzahautl): tree grows to 15' high. Native to Mexico. carnea (fistolusa): bush with pink flowers native to Ecuador. costata: native to australia. leptophylia: wine colored flowers 3" across. Huge edible roots. meulleri: native to australia. murucoides: (Pajaro bobo) native to oaxca. purpurea: native to mexico, common throughout N. America as an ornamental. violacea (Tlitliltzin): sacred Mayan morning glory. Widely used for its psychoactive effects in the Heavenly blue, Pearly Gates, Flying Suacers and Wedding Bells strains. Usage: 5-10 grams of seeds can be ingested as follows: thoroughly chew and swallow grind and soak in water for 1/2 hour, strain and drink sprout by soaking in water for 3-4 days (change water often), after which the white mushy part is removed from the shell and eaten. This is probably the best method for avoiding side effects, although I have I have reason to believe sprouting the seeds lessens their effectiveness. Most commercially available Morning glory seeds are treated with chemicals to thwart consumption. Seeds are also sometimes treated with Methyl mercury to prevent spoilage. Chemically treated seeds can cause severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Effects: LSD like experience lasting about 6 hours, but with less hallucinogenic effects. Nausea is common even with untreated seeds. Less anxiety, less intensity than LSD in normal doses. Nausea can be lessened by ingesting one or two dramamine 30 minutes to one hour before ingesting the MG seeds. More dramamine can be taken after the nausea sets in, however, dramamine can be a DANGEROUS drug in high doses and its synergistic effects with LSA are unknown. Exceeding the recommended dosage given on the dramamine box is probably a pretty stupid thing to do under any circumstances. History: The Zapotecs used ipomoea violacea by grinding the seeds up and wrapping them in a meal cloth. They would then soak it in cold water and would find out information about the illness of a patient, a troublemaker among the people, or the location of a lost object. Interaction precautions: should not be taken by people with a history of liver disorders or hepatitis. Should not be taken by pregnant women. Active Constituents: D-lysergic acid amide NATIVE SOUTH AMERICAN INTOXICANTS Family: Acanthaceae Genus: Justicia Species: pectoralis (var. stenophylla) Usage: Waikas of Orinoco headwaters in Venezuela add dried and pulverized leaves of this herb to their Virola-snuff. Effects: Unknown Active Constituents: Intensely aromatic smelling leaves probably contain tryptamines. Plants are available from ...Of the jungle for$35.

-------------------------

Family:

Leguminosae

Genus:

Anadenanthera (Piptadenia)

species:

peregrina

colubrina

Usage:

Black beans from these trees are toasted, pulverized and mixed with ashes or calcined shells to make psychedelic snuff called yopo by Indians in Orinoco basin in Colombia, Venezuela and possibly in southern part of Brasilian Amazon. Yopo is blown into the nostrils through bamboo tubes or snuffed by birdbone tubes. The trees grow in open plain areas, and leaves, bark and seeds contain DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds (Schultes 1976,1977; Pachter et al. 1959).

Active Constituents: DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds.

--------------------------

Family:

Leguminosae

Genus:

Mimosa

Species:

tenuiflora (== hostilis) "tepescohuite"

verrucosa

General:

The roots of M. hostilis, which is *not* the common houseplant M. pudica ("sensitive plant"), contain 0.57% DMT and are used by Indians of Pernambuso State in Brazil as part of their Yurema cult (Pachter et al. 1959, Schultes 1977, Meckes-Lozoya et al. 1990). Bark of M. verrucosa also contains DMT (Smith 1977).

Active Constituents: DMT

---------------------------

Family:

Malpighiaceae

Genus:

Banisteriopsis

Species:

rusbyana

argentea

Usage:

Natives of western Amazon add DMT-containing leaves of the vine B. rusbyana to a drink made from B. caapi, which contains beta-carbolines harmine and harmaline, to heighten and lengthen the visions (Schultes 1977, Smith 1977).

Active Constituents:

leaves contain DMT.

---------------------------

Family:

Myristicaceae

Genus:

Virola

Species:

calophylla

calophylloidea

rufula

sebifera

theiodora

Usage:

The bark resin of these trees is used to prepare hallucinogenic snuffs in northwestern Brazil by boiling, drying and pulverizing it. Sometimes leaves of a Justicia are added.

Amazonian Colombia natives roll small pellets of boiled resin in a evaporated filtrate of bark ashes of Gustavia Poeppigiana and ingest them to bring on a rapid intoxication (Smith 1977, Schultes 1977).

Effects:

The snuff acts rapidly and violently, "effects include excitement, numbness of the limbs, twitching of facial muscles, nausea, hallucinations, and finally a deep sleep; macroscopia is frequent and enters into Waika beliefs about the spirits resident in the drug."

Active Constituents:

Snuffs made from V. theiodora bark contain up to 11% 5-MeO-DMT and DMT. Leaves, roots and flowers also contain DMT.

-------------------------

Family:

Rubiaceae

Genus:

Psychotria

Species:

viridis (psychotriaefolia)

Usage:

Psychotria leaves are added to a hallucinogenic drink prepared from Banisteriopsis caapi and B. rusbyana (which contain beta-carbolines) to strengthen and lengthen the effects in western Amazon.

Active Constituents:

P. viridis contains DMT (Schultes 1977).

5 seeds $10 from ...Of the jungle, leaves are also available. References: Meckes-Lozoya, M., Lozoya, X., Marles, R.J., Soucy-Breau, C., Sen, A., Arnason, J.T. 1990. N,N-dimethyltryptamine alkaloid in Mimosa tenuiflora bark (tepescohuite). Arch. Invest. Med. Mex. 21(2) 175-7 Pachter, I.J, Zacharias, D.E & Ribeir, O. 1959. Indole Alkaloids of Acer saccharinum (the Silever Maple), Dictyoloma incanescens, Piptadenia colubrina, and Mimosa hostilis. J Org Chem 24 1285-7 Schultes, R.E. 1976. Indole Alkaloids in Plant Hallucinogens. J of Psychedelic Drugs Vol 8 No 1 7-25. Schultes, R.E. 1977. The Botanical and Chemical Distribution of Hallucinogens. J of Psychedelic Drugs Vol 9 No 3 247-263 Smith, T.A. 1977. Review: Tryptamine and Related Compounds in Plants. Phytochemistry Vol 16 171-175. NUTMEG Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Myristica Species: fragrans Usage: 5-20 grams of ground nutmeg is ingested. Fresh ground is best. Can also be taken in a "space paste" concoction (see below). Space paste is difficult/expensive to make and tastes like shit; however, it may actually decrease the side effects. Effects: Possible nausea during first hour; may cause vomiting or diarrhea in isolated cases. Takes anywhere from one to five hours for effects to set in. Then expect severe cottonmouth, flushing of skin, severely bloodshot eyes, dilated pupils. Personally I compare it to a very, very heavy hash buzz. "Intense sedation". Impaired speech and motor functions. Hallucinations uncommon in average (5-10 gm) doses. Generally followed by long, deep, almost coma-like sleep (expect 16 hours of sleep afterward) and feelings of lethargy after sleep. May cause constipation, water retention. Safrole is carcinogenic and toxic to the liver. History: Nutmeg was a very important trade item in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was a precious commodity due to the enormous medicinal properties of its seeds. Slaves on the ships bringing nutmeg to Europe got in trouble for eating part of the cargo. They knew that a few large kernels of nutmeg would bring them a pleasant, euphoric feeling, and relieved their weariness and pain. Nutmeg was even used when the feeble King Charles II almost died of a clot or hemorrhage. His death a few days later did nothing to detract from its useful reputation. Rumor spread through London that Nutmegs could act as an abortifacient. The ladies who procured abortions from nutmeg were called "nutmeg ladies." Interaction precautions: MAO inhibitor Active Constituents: Methylenedioxy-substituted compounds: myristicin (non-amine precursor of 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine [M-MDA]) elemicin, and safrole. From The Net: ~From: [email protected] (Michael G. Goldsman) ~Subject: Nutmeg Story ~Date: 11 Aug 91 23:56:07 GMT Organization: Georgia Institute of Technology Friday, a "friend" of mine decided to see what all the talk about nutmeg was all about... here's what happened... 8:15 -- "he" took 1 tablespoon of ground nutmeg... 9:15 -- "he" took 1 more tablespoon of ground nutmeg... 11:15 -- "he" took still 1 more tablespoon of ground nutmeg... As of now, "he" didn't feel anything... "He" got the beginnings of a buzz at about 12:30 which gradually increased in intensity... By 3 am or so, he compared it to moderate cannibis buzz It peaked at at 5 am, and he then went to sleep. The effects continued through saturday afternoon and night, though not as intense as late friday night (or saturday morning technically). By sunday morning, the effects were totally gone. The main point is, that except for lots of drowsiness, my "friend" never suffered any of the ill effects that people have described ... (such as nausea and headaches) It was very comprable to a medium marijuana buzz. There were no hallucinations, but maybe a larger dose is needed for this. Next week my "friend" will go for 5 tablespons over the course of a few hours.. Will he live to describe the experience?? ================================== ~From: [email protected] (Jeffery Tye) ~Subject: Space paste! (was Re: nutmeg as a hallucinogen) ~Date: Sat, 29 Jun 91 01:59:09 GMT Organization: The Scantily Clad Orangutans, Inc. 'Space Paste' heart chakra, but it's a legal high that will get you pleasantly buzzed. :-) DON NOT OMIT ANY INGREDIENTS. Trust me. 4 parts nutmeg (ground from whole nutmeg) 4 parts almonds (soak almonds overnight and rinse) 4 parts *raw* pistachios 2 parts cinnamon 1 part cumin 1 part tarragon 1 part oregano 1 part basil 1 part tumeric 1/2 part cayenne pepper 1/2 part black pepper To taste: Maple Syrup One part equals 1/4 cup. [if you want to make enough for about 500 people, that is. Try 1 part=1 tablespoon--ed] - Use only whole nutmeg. Not pre-ground. - Grind up all ingredients with a spice grinder or food processor. - Mix in Maple syrup until consistency of paste. - Do not omit any ingredient, or it will NOT work. Okay, you've gone this far, time to enjoy. The strong at heart will spread some on toast. I like it blended in milk. It has a real strong taste, so it's best to put it in the milk, fire up the blender, pour it into a glass and chug it down in one gulp. Start with two tablespoons. Effects begin in two hours. I've known brave souls who take a cup at a time. Maybe that's why they disappear for a couple of days. ================================= ~Date: Wed, 2 Oct 91 09:57:26 MDT ~From: ~Subject: More on Nutmeg Story Begin forwarded message: Well, I am recovering from a horrible experience. Tuesday night about 10:30pm, I took 5 tablespoons of Nutmeg. I am still hungover, almost 2 days later. I got the initial stimulation, euphoria, but not much more than what one gets around 2 tablespoons. That was fine and dandy. I fell asleep at about 1:30am, with nothing psychedelic occurring yet. I woke up at 3 am spinning, like I was drunk. I awoke again at 9am, and got out of bed. I had to: thirsty as hell, no saliva. I had wicked troubles walking, far too dizzy and -out-of-it-. Just like I had no control over my body. Also, any movement that I did make nauseated me. By 9:30 I had my drink of water, and I collapsed on the kitchen floor, sleeping until noon. I thought that I would have something to eat, at that time, but was far too dizzy still to do anything. By this time I was in a panic, thinking that I had comitted suicide, etc.etc. My body felt like it was melding with the floor; I also felt that my whole body was made of vomit. Quite odd. I crawled (literally) up to bed again and slept like a stone until 6pm. I managed to eat some stuff. I could stand for 30 seconds at a time, by this time. I watched a movie, dozing on and off. I looked at myself in a mirror: horrible sight, very red sunken eyes etc.etc. Went to bed and awoke this morning at 11:30am. Awoke with something like a horrible hangover. I feel like I have had a wicked flu yesterday and today. Besides some odd physical sensations and perceptions, even this dosage was not overtly hallucinogenic. I did not experience any colour / visual perception changes this time, like at the lower dosage. Perhaps I was just too sleepy to notice. This experience was just downright gross. I think I have given up experimenting with Nutmeg (and Mace) [ even though I really like the taste of the stuff. Some people complain they can't get the stuff down --- they must not be using fresh stuff]. It was really an offputting experience. Tonight, I think I am just going to hunt down something illegal but safer. YOHIMBE BARK Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Corynanthe Species: yohimbe Usage: 6-10 teaspoons of shaved bark are boiled 10 minutes in 1 pt. water, strained and sipped slowly. Addition of 500 mg of vitamin C per cup makes it take effect more quickly and potently (probably by forming easily assimilated ascorbates of the alkaloids). Bark can also be smoked. Yohimbine hydrochloride, a refined powder version, can also be snuffed. Also available at many health/herb stores is a liquid extract. Effects: Called "the most potent aphrodisiac known" and "the only true aphrodisiac". Whether aphrodisiacs exist outside of mythology or not is a topic for debate, as is the definition of "aphrodisiac". Anyway, first effects after 30 minutes (sooner with vitamin C) consist of warm, pleasant spinal shivers, followed by psychic stimulation, heightening of emotional and sexual feelings, mild perceptual changes without hallucinations, sometimes spontaneous erections. Some experience nausea during first 30 minutes. Sexual activity is especially pleasurable. According to one source "Bantu orgies have been known to last over a week" [Ed: don't they get hungry?]. Total experience lasts 2-4 hours, however, several experiences lasting up to 24 hours have been reported. Aftereffects include pleasant, relaxed feelings with no hangover, but difficulty sleeping for a few hours (probably largely due to the increased mental activity). Since they sell the stuff in health food stores and I'm not sure what it's legitimate uses are, I'm willing to admit that I've tried it. My experience was worth repeating. This of course constitutes no endorsement on my part of illegal or legal drugs or of the use of yohimbe for any reason at all. I ground about 7 teaspoons of shaved bark in a spice grinder (fresh grinding seems to help with release of the active ingredients) and then boiled it in a pint of water for about 10 minutes. The stuff absorbs a lot of water. Also, when freshly ground, you get some FINE FINE FINE particles. It took me a good 15 minutes to filter the stuff out through coffee filters (had to use a bunch of filters cuz it clogged them up so bad). The resulting brew was one of the top three worst things I've ever tasted in my life (the other two being calamus root and an abortive attempt at a kava kava concoction). It tasted kind of like bile. You can kill the taste if you put enough honey in the tea, but the aftertaste never goes away. As soon as you swallow it creeps up your throat; really gross. The fact that the stuff should be sipped slowly makes this even worse. I would recommend finding a REAL strong chaser, like pure lemon juice or maybe a mint leaf--something that obliterates all other taste in your mouth when you eat/drink/chew it, yet is tolerably pleasant tasting. I would swig/chew this chaser after every sip of yohimbe tea. WARNING: The active ingredients in yohimbe are mild MAO inhibitors. [see MAO Inhibitors above] Anyway, I took the tea with vitamin C. About 20 minutes after I got done drinking it I felt some mild nausea (more in my throat than in my stomach), some mellow trippy effects (just mostly weird thoughts and vivid mental images--nothing near a hallucination, no LSD-like mind racing), also had some speedy effects (like being on 500 mg of caffeine--jitters, etc) and started getting a little "pressure" in the groinal region. To make a long story short, the nausea was a bummer, and sex was incredible. Yohimbe completely changes the meaning of the word "orgasm" for men, anyway. I have no idea what a woman's reaction to it would be. The sexual effects lasted about 4 hours (only cuz I was getting tired :^); the speedy effects decreased earlier than that, but I couldn't sleep at all that night (even when I was ready to), and I'm sure it was because of the yohimbe. I also recently tried the yohimbe extract that they sell in health food stores. The stuff costs about$7/oz. It comes in one ounce bottles with screw-on eye-dropper caps. Recommended dose on the bottle is 3-20 drops up to three times a day. First time I tried it I took 35 drops with absolutely no effects. Recently, I took 100 drops mixed in orange juice. The stuff is tasteless in minute quantities, but at 100 drops/~8 oz. of OJ, it added a mildly bitter taste. Not too bad, tho--1000x better than the tea. Anyway, it didn't do anything, so I took another 50 drops, then another 50, and still no effects whatsoever. I wonder if the extract is even active.

I would advise yohimbe experimenters to use the tea form, and start out with 4 or five teaspoons of fresh ground bark, as the effects of 7 teaspoons were quite pronounced in me, and I am a 200 lb. male with a high tolerance for everything.

History:

Interaction precautions: MAO inhibitor.

Active Constituents: Yohimbine, yohimbiline, ajmaline. (Note that yohimBE is the plant; yohimBINE is one of the chemical principles found in the plant.)

FROM THE NET:

~From: [email protected] (Steve Dyer)

~Subject: Re: Yohimbine bark

~Date: 18 Jul 91 02:17:32 GMT

Organization: S.P. Dyer Computer Consulting, Cambridge MA

Ecni Asked:

>Anyone care to enlighten us yohimbine-illiterate readers what yohimbine

>bark is and what it does?

Yohimbine is the primary alkaloid found in yohimbine bark. It is an

alpha-2-adrenergic antagonist. It blocks presynaptic inhibitory

synapses, meaning that it tends to increase central and peripheral

adrenergic activity. It tends to cause nervousness and increases blood

pressure. It also seems to be effective in some cases of impotence.

Steve Dyer

[email protected] aka {ima,harvard,rayssd,linus,m2c}!spdcc!dyer

[email protected]

DATURA

Family:

Solanaceae

Genus:

Datura

Species:

fastuosa: large shrub with white flowers

inoxia (Don Juan's Datura): native to mexico

metel: native to India.

sanguinea (Eagle Datura, Tonga): Native to S. America.

stramonium (Jimson Weed): Dangerous hallucinogen widespread in temperate regions.

Other species: tatula, brugmansia, candida, suaveolens, arborea, aurea, dolichocarpa, vulcanicola, discolor

Usage:

Leaves are sometimes smoked. Small amount of seed can be pulverized and added to drinks as in the Algonquin ritual.

Effects:

described as "delerium". Leaves are hallucinogenic and hypnotic. Seeds cause mental confusion and delirium followed by deep sleep with colorful hallucinations. Excessive amounts are toxic. May cause blacking out and severe headaches. Yaqui indian brujos say it causes insanity. THIS SUBSTANCE IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED DANGEROUS.

History:

discolor (Desert Thornapple): used by hopi shamans for divination.

inoxia: "Don Juan's Datura" is used in it's native mexico by Yaqui bruhos for divination

metel: Used by the Thuggee cult in it's native India to drug sacrificial victims to Kali.

sanguinea (Eagle Datura, Tonga): Used by Aztecs in the Temple of the Sun. Peruvian natives believe it allows them to communicate with departed souls.

stramonium (Jimson Weed): Dangerous hallucinogen widespread in temperate regions. Used by Algonquins in ritual drink called "Wysoccan" to introduce boys to manhood.

Active Constituents:

Scopolamine, atropine, hyoscyamine and other tropanes.

"Hyoscyamine and scopolamine possess specific anticholinergic, antispasmodic activity and elicit some central nervous effects as well. These effects usually consist of stimulation at low doses, depression in higher toxic doses. ... Intoxication with atropine or hyoscyamine is characterized by psychic excitation often combined with panic and hallucination. Scopolamine was found to produce a state of excitement followed by a kind of narcosis in which, in the transition state between consciousness and sleep, hallucinations sometimes occur (Heimann, 1952). These effects explain the addition of belladonna and other solanaceous plants as ingredients of magic brews in medieval Europe and of sacred medicines by the Indians of Mexico and South America."

(Schultes and Hoffman, 1980)

NOTE:

Family Solanaceae is the potato family (did you know potatoes have a lower LD50 than marijuana? It's true). Many members of this family contain tropanes and have a history of ritualistic use. Other commonly-used members are the Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum), Belladonna (a.k.a. deadly nightshade) (Atropa belladonna), Thornapple (Datura inoxia), Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), and Iochroma. All these substances will be covered in more detail in a future version of this faq.

Kuthmithi (Withania somnifera) is one member of the Potato family that does not appear to contain active amounts of tropanes and is generally considered safe for use as a sedative.

FROM THE NET:

~From: [email protected] (Gerald Bryan (Denver))

~Subject: Re: Shrooms, Datura etc

~Date: 29 Aug 91 16:43:51 GMT

In article <[email protected]> [email protected] (Fie

nd) writes:

> How many people have lasting physical damage from Datura?

I know one person who has used Datura. She was an experienced drug user at

the time. She said it gave her tremendous visions, but it took her a

year before she felt that her eyesight was back to normal. She only used it

once.

Two years ago, there was a story in the local paper about some college

students in Boulder who walked buck naked into a police station, totally

out of it. They had apparently consumed some datura (on purpose) up in

the mountains.

===============================

~From: [email protected] (marsthom)

~Subject: BADUNGA & MORNING GLORY SEEDS

~Date: 25 Sep 91 21:32:50 GMT

Organization: Albedo Communications

I ran across this citation while doing a computer search:

ARDILA A; MORENO C

Scopolamine intoxication as a model of transient global amnesia.

Brain Cogn. 1991 Mar; 15(2): 236-45

In Colombia (South America) during recent decades the administration of

scopolamine, extracted from plants belonging to the Datura or Brugmansia

genus, has become an important neurologic and toxicologic phenomenon.

These extracts have been popularly known as "Burundanga." Chemical

characteristics and clinical features of scopolamine intoxication are

described. Anterograde amnesia and submissive behavior found in patients

intoxicated with scopolamine are analyzed. Burundanga intoxication is

related to other toxic phenomena found in different countries and

similitudes with transient global amnesia are emphasized.

Datura seeds look like brownish hot-pepper or tomato seeds. They are flat

or lens-like disks, about 1/8 inch in diameter, with an irregular bulge

where the stem-scar is. The intoxication from Datura and other plants in

that same group (the Nightshade family, "Solanaceae") is more of a delirium

than a psychedelic experience. The intoxication resembles that of a strong

dose of Mandrake tea, for instance. Other symptoms would be a dry mouth,

a wierd floaty feeling, and muddled thinking. The active substances in

Datura-like plants are also quite toxic and have been fatal on occasion.

-----------------------------------

~From: [email protected] (Eli Brandt)

~Subject: Re: datura seeds...

~Date: 30 Sep 91 21:41:48 GMT

Organization: Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711

_The_Botany_and_Chemistry_of_Hallucinogens_, Schultes and Hofmann, sez that:

{\it Datura metel}'s seeds have a total alkaloid content of 0.2 to 0.5

percent, mostly scopolamine. More relevantly, D. inoxia is similar

in alkaloid content to D. metel. You could look up the ED and LD for

scopolamine and calculate the appropriate mass of seeds. You might want

to assume the alkaloid content to be significantly higher than 0.5%, just

to have a decent margin. Remember, the LD takes precedence over the ED. :-}

I take no responsibility for any gruesome death which may be caused by the

above information.

Eli Brandt [email protected]

www.erowid.org/psychoactives/faqs/natural_highs_faq.shtml

#### Psychoactive Plants & Fungi

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 1:10 PM comments (0)

Plants listed in this section are those which have been used by humans for their mind- or emotion-altering properties. These plants range from the common to the extremely uncommon and include plants with a long history of use as well as those with little to no track record.

COMMON NAME GENUS / SPECIES NATIVE TO

ACACIA Acacia spp. Australia

AMANITAS Amanita muscaria Siberia

AYAHUASCA Yage Amazon Basin

BELLADONNA Atropa belladonna Europe, Middle East

BETEL Areca catechu .

BRUGMANSIA Brugmansia spp. S. America

BRUNFELSIA Brunfelsia latifolia Amazon

BUNDLE FLOWER Desmanthus illinoensis N. America

CAAPI Banisteriopsis caapi Amazon

CACTI Trichocereus spp. S. America

CACAO Theobroma cacao Central & S. America

CANNABIS Cannabis sativa India, Middle East

CAPSICUM Capsicum spp. Americas

CESTRUM Cestrum spp. Central & S. America

COCA Erythroxylum coca S. America

COLEUS Solenostemon scutellarioides Indonesia, Africa

COLORADO RIVER REED Arundo donax .

COFFEE Coffea arabica .

DATURA Datura spp. C. & S. America, India

DESFONTAINIA Desfontainia spp. S. America

DIPLOPTERYS Diplopterys cabrerana S. America

EPHEDRA Ephedra sinica China

ERGOT Claviceps purpurea Europe

GUARANA Paullinia cupana the Amazon

H. B. WOODROSE Argyreia nervosa .

HENBANE Hyoscyamus niger Europe, Middle East

IBOGA Tabernanthe iboga Congo, Gabon

INTOXICATING MINT Lagochilus inebriens Central Asia

JUSTICIA PECTORALIS Justicia pectoralis .

KANNA Sceletium tortuosum South Africa

KAVA Piper methysticum Pacific Islands

KHAT Catha edulis Ethiopia, South Arabia

KRATOM Mitragyna speciosa Thailand

LION'S TAIL / DAGGA Leonotis leonurus S. Africa

LOTUS Nymphaea spp.; Nelumbo spp. Egypt

MESCAL Sophora secundiflora Mexico, New Mexico, Texas

MUCUNA PRURIENS Mucuna pruriens S. America, Africa, Asia

MANDRAKE Mandragora officinarum Europe, Middle East

MIMOSA Mimosa tenuiflora (=hostilis) Brazil

MORNING GLORY Ipomoea violacea Mexico

MUSHROOMS Psilocybe spp.; Panaeolus spp. Mexico

NUTMEG Myristica fragrans New Guinea, East Indies

OLOLIUQUI Turbina corymbosa .

PASSIONFLOWER Passiflora incarnata .

PEYOTE Lophophora williamsii Mexico

PHALARIS GRASS Phalaris spp. .

PITURI Duboisia hopwoodii Australia

POPPIES Papaver somniferum Persia, Asia

PSYCHOTRIA Psychotria viridis, spp. .

SALVIA DIVINORUM Salvia divinorum Mexico

Sakae Naa Combretum quadrangulare Southeast Asia

SAN PEDRO Trichocereus pachanoi S. America

SINICUICHI Heimia salicifolia Mexico

SLEEPY GRASS Stipa robusta New Mexico, Colorado

SOLANDRA Solandra spp. Central Mexico

ST. JOHNS WORT Hypericum perforatum .

SYRIAN RUE Peganum harmala Persia, India

TABERNAEMONTANA Tabernaemontana spp. S. America, Africa

TEA Camellia sinensis S.E. Asia

TOBACCO Nicotiana tabacum, rusticum Americas

VIROLA Virola theidora Amazon

VOACANGA Voacanga africana Africa

WILD LETTUCE Lactuca virosa Europe

WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium Europe

YERBA MATE Ilex paraguariensis Brazil, Argentina

YOPO, COHOBA Anadenanthera spp. Amazon

YOHIMBE Corynanthe yohimbe Congo, Cameroon

ZACATECHICHI Calea zacatechichi Mexico, Central America

#### Interactions Between MAOIs, SSRIs, and Recreational Drugs

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 1:10 PM comments (0)

Interactions Between MAOIs, SSRIs, and Recreational Drugs

by Erowid

Avoid mixing MAOIs and SSRIs.

This can lead to serotonin syndrome and can be dangerous.

Do not mix MAOIs with Stimulants (including MDMA).

This can lead to hypertensive crisis and can be deadly.

SSRIs in Combination with MDMA

Generally reduces the effects of the MDMA significantly.

SSRIs in Combination with Psychedelics

Generally reduce the effects of the psychedelic a bit.

MAOIs in Combination with Psychedelics

Generally increase the effects of the psychedelic significantly. Be extremely careful.

SSRIs

Strong SSRIs are significantly more common than MAOIs. Many commonly prescribed pharmaceutical anti-depressants are SSRIs, including Prozac (Fluoxetine), Paxil (Paroxetine), Zoloft (Sertraline), Celexa (Citalopram), and Desyrel (Trazodone).

MAOIs

Strong MAOIs are less common, but include prescription anti-depressants like phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), isocarboxazid (Marplan), l-deprenyl (Eldepryl), moclobemide (Aurorex or Manerix), furazolidone, and pargyline. Ayahuasca also contains MAOIs, generally in the form of Banisteriopsis caapi or Syrian rue (harmine and harmaline).

#### MARIJUANA PROHIBITION CAN DO MORE HARM THAN GOOD, DOCTORS TELL FEDERAL PARTIES

 Posted on September 23, 2015 at 10:50 AM comments (0)

If Canada’s new government chooses to legalize marijuana beyond medical use then it should get into the business of controlling its supply and sale to prevent the rise of a “Big Cannabis,” addiction specialists say.

Cannabis policy could be an issue ahead of October’s federal election. The governing Conservative party favours the status quo, the competing Liberals seek to legalize, regulate and tax, and the New Democrats support decriminalization. The Green Party has said it would legalize and tax marijuana.

In a commentary published in Monday’s issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal, addiction doctors describe the negative aspects of prohibiting cannabis use, such as fuelling the illegal drug trade and the high costs and harms associated with policing and prosecuting people.

“We’re hoping to provide some direction to policy-makers in Canada to encourage them to rethink their current policies around cannabis, to move away from prohibition because it doesn’t work and has a lot of harms associated with it,” Dr. Sheryl Spithoff, a family physician and addiction doctor at Women’s College Hospital in Toronto and one of the coauthors of the paper, said in an interview.

Read more

#### Press Release Services

 Posted on September 15, 2015 at 3:05 PM comments (0)